Стресс и мотивация в изучении иностранных языков

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Стресс в обучении считается реакцией на эмоциональное и психическое давление, к сожалению, эта биологическая реакция может оказаться распространенной в образовательных учреждениях как для учителей, так и для учащихся. На основе различных ресурсов по стрессу и его влиянию в данной статье была поставлена задача поставить главный вопрос для обсуждения: является ли стресс жизненно важным фактором в изучении языков на примере вузов филологического направления. Кроме того, эта статья направлена на то, чтобы сосредоточиться на неблагоприятных последствиях стресса для способностей учащихся, а также на рассмотрении ряда проверенных методов, позволяющих вызвать серьезное беспокойство во время изучения языка. Кроме того, по результатам анкетирования широко обсуждаются мотивация и их виды для управления и преодоления стресса.

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Текст научной работы


Learning a different language is very challenging but if the leaner has internal desire to learn any language, he/she can do well. It is an internal or external desire in people, which increases learners‟ interest to learn a different language to achieve a goal. The competency-based approach reflects a type of education content that is not limited to a knowledge-oriented component, but involves a holistic experience in solving life problems, performing key functions, social roles, and competencies. Stress is an inevitable and natural reaction, presently, it is reckoned to be impediment in receiving second language patterns, as a proof, language learners frequently encounter myriad of challenges, owing to apprehension, anxiety, and nervousness. Dialect uneasiness can start from learners’ possess sense of ‘self’, their self-related cognitions, dialect learning challenges, contrasts in learners’ and target dialect societies, contrasts in social status of the speakers and conversationalists, and from the fear of losing self-identity. Thought of dialect learners’ uneasiness responses by a dialect educator is regarded profoundly critical in arrange to help them to attain the expecting execution objectives within the target language. Therefore, issues regarding stress ought not to be neglected in pedagogical practices, as several problems are directly associated not only with language devices, but also with normal emotional responses like worry, fear, anxiety which usually arise from stress. It is advisable to educators to take into account side effects of stress while language acquisition and apply diverse approaches that assist students to abstain from subjection to unreasonable feeling of being in tension. Therefore, motivation cannot be denied in learning a second language. Second language is something that is not native to someone. That is why in learning a second language if one keeps determination in one hand; the other hand should be filled with motivation. It is like the necessity of having both hydrogen and oxygen molecules in forming water, deficiency of any of which will hamper it. Without motivation learner cannot perform or learn a language. Motivation makes purposes clearly visible.

Literature review

Uneasiness may be a mental build, commonly depicted by clinicians as a state of trepidation, a unclear fear that's as it were in a roundabout way related with an object». Uneasiness is feeling characterized by sentiments of pressure, stressed considerations and physical changes like expanded blood weight. Individuals with uneasiness clutters as a rule have repeating meddling considerations or concerns. They may maintain a strategic distance from certain circumstances out of stress. They may moreover have physical side effects such as sweating, trembling, tipsiness or a quick pulse (Adjusted from Encyclopedia of Psychology). Uneasiness may be a mental build, commonly depicted by clinicians as a state of trepidation, unclear fear that's as it were in a roundabout way related with an object». proposed that extend happens when people seen that the demands from exterior circumstances were past their adjusting capacity. These days, the definition «stress is the method of interaction from determination demands from the environment (known as the value-based model)» is broadly acknowledged. While, Skinner in 1985 characterized stretch as «a response of a specific person to a boost event». Afterward in 1988, Eliot concluded that «stress may be seen as the body’s reaction to any genuine or envisioned occasion seen as requiring a few versatile reaction».

Referring to the problem of motivation, Deci & Ryan (1985) have observed that personal motifs such as fear or anxiety may combine with learned social motifs such as a desire for status in a group and for social approval, creating a series of reactions that may inhibit or work towards progress in a foreign language. Up to a point, an anxious learner may try hard to catch up with the group and acquire proficiency in a language. Based on the pioneering work of Brophy (1998), Corno (1993), Kuhl (1987), Corno and Kanfer (1993), Dornyei (2001c) divided self-motivating strategies into four main classes.

These were:

  1. Commitment control strategies for increasing the learners‟ original goal;
  2. Satiation control strategies to make extra interest towards the task;
  3. Emotion control strategies for managing disruptive emotional moods and;
  4. Environmental control strategies used to eliminate negative influences and exploiting positive influences to achieve the specific goal.

Resarch methodology

According to Wikipedia, foreign language anxiety, additionally called xenoglossophobia, is the sensation of unease, worry, anxiousness and apprehension skilled in getting to know or the usage of a 2nd or overseas language. Feelings can arise from any second language context, whether related to effective speaking and writing skills or receptive reading and listening skills. Analysis has illustrated that foreign language anxiety is a considerable issue during a novel language acquisition, it is thought to be that some individuals are more subjected to anxiety than others and might feel tension in diverse circumstances. In most cases, foreign language anxiety is caused by communication-apprehension, test anxiety, and fear of undesirable assessment, more precisely, communication apprehension is a type of foreign language anxiety that is underwent whilst students are speaking and listening to individuals. Test-anxiety is considered to be the sort of performance anxiety and it is closely interconnected with terror of underperformance. Fear of being harshly criticized is a student’s self-programmed perception and this attitude might adversely impact on learner’s aptitude, as a ramification it may give rise to inferior progress in language acquisition as well.

That is why it is a fallacy to ignore role of anxiety in language acquisition, as a proof, it is bound to generate regress and setback, which would result in receiving unsatisfactory language barriers as well. Another point is that excessive state of tension jeopardizes students’ self-estimation, self-assurance, and perspective, hence there can be chance to end up with discouragement and frustration. Learners who have penchant for excessive pressure endure inconvenient impacts amid unconstrained talking exercises in execution. Besides, they may be less able to self-edit and recognize language mistakes and more likely to resort skipping class. Individuals who show this sort of communication reticence are frequently perceived as less reliable, less adequate, less socially and physically appealing than their fairly confident and less stressed counterparts.

According to the results of Uzbekistan state world languages university students’ questionnaire, in the vicinity of 15% of students suffer from linguistic barrier in communication, this means that problem of miscommunication is fairly common among language learners. The figure for students who are subjected to mortification is significantly higher approximately 30% of learners are facing challenge, owing to their state of being embarrassed and confused.

The level of confidence While speaking English
Рисунок 1. The level of confidence While speaking English

Based on the chart 2, the widespread reason for student’s anxiety is fear of being harshly criticized by their contemporaries or educators because of their flaws in their speech, the number of students who are impacted with this feeling account for 44.4%. The second most common hindrance to smooth speaking is deemed to be the insufficiency of lexical resources among learners, however, percentage of learners who are not confident about their accent and pronunciation are quite smaller than expected. The rest of the students just find it hard to be accustomed to foreign language itself.

Th reason of students’ anxiety
Рисунок 2. Th reason of students’ anxiety

So to manage stress the following tips may help in language learning process. The y are as follows:

  1. Be mindful of upsetting, on edge considerations, anxiety-causing circumstances, "unsavory" identities and occasions, or those that cause push, unkindness, threatening vibe,, or cynical sentiments. At whatever point they happen, casually type in them all down. Take note how these contemplations turn into negative feelings that make mindfulness of the danger. At whatever point you see a negative thought or feeling, do not attempt to alter it at to begin with. See. In the event that you criticize, fault, or judge yourself for considering or feeling contrarily, watch it as another negative thought;
  2. Tell yourself: This thought or feeling is to me, not in reality. Take a minute to see the truth in it. Let's sink it;
  3. Do not accept in Unpleasant Contemplations: In case you do not accept in terrifying, unpleasant, critical considerations, it's feeble. It's fair an thought to come and go. In case you do not accept in negative contemplations, it doesn't turn into stretch, uneasiness, or discouragement;
  4. Tell yourself: Instep I might see peace. Unobtrusively rehash this thought, looking AROUND;
  5. Conclude by recollecting that in spite of the fact that negative contemplations and sentiments are in you, they are not you. They come and go like clouds. But the substance of your being is just like the blue sky these clouds travel through and some of the time cover. Let your intellect go totally and ended up the blue sky for a moment.

Meditation may be a superb ability with life-changing potential, but how you select to utilize that ability is up to you. With increasing scope of reflection and mindfulness within the media, numerous individuals appear to be in a rush to characterize its reason. But the truth is, you define the reason by choosing how you select to utilize it. Once you learned to ride a bicycle, I’m beyond any doubt you were basically appeared how to ride the bicycle, not how you ought to utilize that capacity. Some use a bicycle to commute, for others it’s to hang out with companions, and for an awfully few cycling may indeed gotten to be a career. But the ability of being able to stay within the saddle is the same for each. So whereas someone else might have instructed you how to ride, you characterize what cycling implies to you, how you utilize it, and how it best suits your way of life. And so it is with the skill of meditation. It can be connected to any viewpoint of life and the esteem of it is rise to as it were to the esteem you put upon it.

The chart 3 provides information on different approaches applied to cope with nervousness whilst interacting in foreign language verbally, as it is clear, ameliorating glossary is deemed to be a commonplace technique to abstain from poor communication in novel language, hence in the vicinity of 44% of students reckon that it is most effective way to rectify their speechmaking. Doing practices and having a conversation with their counterparts account for just below 30% respectively. However, speaking face to face in front of the mirror make up an insignificant proportion.

Рисунок 3. Approaches to overcome stress in learning Foreign language.

Being motivated. Learners with higher levels of ability and motivation will do better than the learners with lower levels. Those learners are goal oriented and more attentive. They are eager to know about different materials and highly motivated to participate in language learning. Some learners have high ability and high or low motivation, so these two factors can be related with one another. Ability and motivation both are related with formal and informal language learning context. Formal language learning is happened through realization of language in сclassroom and informal language learning is learning through experience like learning from radio or television. Ability and motivation both are involved in formal learning context but in informal context motivation would be more involved than ability. Educational setting and cultural context both are related to motivation but not for ability.

Chart 1 explained learners‟ opinion about speaking in English as well. This question was also made to find out learners‟ intrinsic motivation. There were 5 options for this part. Most of the students think that speaking in English is their enthusiasm. Some students think that speaking in English is their challenge. Others are taking it as hobby or challenge.

Chart 2 is also explains learners‟ own feeling about speaking in English. 28% students felt nervous and shy. 27% students felt confident. 7% students embarrassed and 10% students supported the option others. The result shows that, most of the students felt nervous and shy while they are speaking in English.

Рисунок 4. Extrinsic motivation.

Chart 4 is the findings of extrinsic motivation. In this question 30% students agreed that they speak in English because they want to make a good impression about them among the people. 30% students also think that they want to get a good job. The Same result came for the third option and that was they want to visit a foreign country where knowing English is a must. Students have different perspective to learn English.

Рисунок 5. Job marketing stimulation

Chart 5 explains stimulation of job market 40.00% students choose the option strongly agreed. 40.00% students agreed. 10. 00% were neutral and 10.00% strongly disagreed. It really shows that job market stimulates the students to learn English. Students want to learn English to get a good job.

The stimulus for learning English in order to extend future opportunities may be classified as belonging to extrinsic, instrumental category of motivation. It may be concluded that in general the learners’ motivation for learning English is Extrinsic. However, there may be the intrinsic motivation, arising from a genuine interest in English, detected in a much smaller proportion of learners (23.3%).

The findings here revealed that extrinsic, instrumental motivation seemed to outweigh intrinsic, integrative motivation as a drive to learn. However, to succeed in learning English, the learners need to beintrinsically motivated as well. To conclude again, the learners at school still have low motivation of speaking English in class.

Conclusion and recommendations

Foreign language anxiety ought not to be neglected in learning process as it might undermine students’ interpersonal skills and makes them underperform both academically and socially. Admittedly, some of learners subjected to perfectionism, therefore they abstain from interacting in the second language if they insecure about their level. Fortunately, copying with stress is no longer an impediment if learners and instructors put into practice efficient techniques to tackle with it. In my perspective, psychological approach in language acquisition is as vital as general explanation of language itself. As it was proved in the study that, motivation is the main stimuli for better performance in learning. In this study, another purpose was to find out the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in students‟ performance. Based on the questionnaire we found out that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation had a strong influence on learner. Both of them play an important role to learn a second language. This study also investigated the present atmosphere in the class-room if the class room was friendly, nervous or negative. We came to conclusion that positively motivated students are more pleasant to teach, prepare more carefully for class, participate more actively in class, less feel stress and achieve more than negatively motivated students.

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Список литературы

  1. Deci, L.E., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.
  2. Dornyei, Z. (2001c). Motivational strategies in the language classroom. Cambridge University Press.
  3. Encyclopedia of Psychology (2000) Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association ; Oxford [Oxfordshire] ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2000.
  4. Hilgard, Atkinson, & Atkinson, (1971 cited in Scovel, 1991: 18) 1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the 2nd World Conference on Psychology, Counselling and Guidance.
  5. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_language_anxiety#:~:text=Foreign%20language%20anxiety%2C%20also%20known,a%20second%20or%20foreign%20language
  6. Medically reviewed by Timothy J. Legg, PhD, PsyD — Written by the Healthline Editorial Team — Updated on February 25, 2020
  7. Tanveer, (2007).1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the 2nd World Conference on Psychology, Counselling and Guidance.
  8. While, Skinner (1985)& Eliot(1988) Stress: Causes, Definitions and Impacts Info: 3966 words (16 pages) Nursing Essay. Published: 15th Dec 2020
  9. Хайрулланва, Д.С. Личностные характеристики и структура читательской компетенции студента филологических вузов иностранного языка / Д.С. Хайрулланва. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2021. — № 127. — С. 44-45. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/18722 (дата обращения: 23.03.2022).


Мирсалихова, Р.Т. Стресс и мотивация в изучении иностранных языков / Р.Т. Мирсалихова. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 131. — С. 100-103. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/19050 (дата обращения: 09.08.2022).