Мотивация — это желание действовать на благо цели

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Раздел: Психологические науки
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В этой статье объясняются причины, по которым понимание человеческой мотивации имеет решающее значение и стоит того времени и усилий, которые требуются, чтобы научиться ее улучшать. В нем определяются виды мотивации, которые более эффективны в нашей сложной и быстро меняющейся среде, а также множество преимуществ здоровой мотивации.

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Literature review

As humans, we do not default to being passive. We would have been born as a sloth or a panda bear else (no offense to these lovely creatures). Striving for, wanting, and moving in the direction of what we want and value is in our nature. Action may not always bring happiness, but there is no happiness without action. (William James)

Motivation is the desire to act on the service of the goal. It is an important factor to set and achieve our goals. The motivation is one of the driving power behind human behavior. The motivation wants to hope for continuing the importance, purpose, and lifetime life. Motivation is why people and animals start specific actions at a particular time, continue specific actions, and end specific actions. Motivation conditions are usually understood as a force acting on drugs that create disposal to participate in Taridia behavior. Various mental states often compete with one another, and only the strongest condition determines the behavior. This means that this is actually motivated to do something without doing it. The paradigm mental condition that provides motivation is desire. However, various other provinces like convictions, what should be to do, what should be done. Various context theory has been proposed in connection with the contents of motivational countries. They are known as accidental theory and are usually intended to make people always motivate. For example, the hierarchy of the needs of Abraham Maslose hierarchy and ERG theory points to have certain needs that they are responsible for their responsibility. Some of these needs such as food and water are more basic than other needs. In this view, only higher needs can provide only motivation as soon as higher needs are met. Behavioralism Theory tries to explain the behavior exclusively with regard to the relationship between situation and external, observable behavior without explicit mention of conscious mental conditions.

Motivation can be intrinsic if the activity is desired because it is interesting or fun in nature, or extrinsic if the agent's goal is an external reward that is different from the activity itself. It has been argued that intrinsic motivation has more positive consequences than extrinsic motivation. Motivational states can also be categorized by whether agents are fully aware of why they are behaving as they are. This is called conscious and unconscious motivation. Motivation is closely related to practical rationality. The central idea in this area is that you should be motivated to take action when you believe you should take action. Failure to meet this requirement results in an irrationality, or weakness of will, called akrasia, which creates a contradiction between our beliefs about what we should do and our actions.

Motivation research has been used in various fields. For example, in the business arena, work motivation is a central issue of what measures employers can take to motivate their employees. Motivation is also of particular interest to educational psychologists because of its important role in student learning. Of particular interest is the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in this area.

Incentive motivation

Incentive theory is a specific theory of motivation that is partially derived from the principle of strengthening activism and is related to incentives or motivations to do something. The most common incentive is reward. Compensation may or may not be significant. It helps motivate employees, scholars and students in their corporate life and encourages people to do more and more to achieve profitability in all areas. Studies show that when a person receives a reward immediately, the effect increases and decreases as the delay increases. A combination of repeated behaviors and rewards can make behaviors a habit

"Reinforces and Behaviors" Reinforcement principles are different from the composition of virtual rewards.» Reinforcements follow an action with the intention that the action will occur more frequently. From this point of view, the concept of distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic forces is irrelevant. Psychological incentive theory deals with individual motivation and behavior because it is influenced by the following beliefs: B. Participate in activities that are expected to be profitable. The incentive theory is B.F. It is promoted by behavioral psychologists such as Skinner. Incentive theory is especially supported by Skinner in a radical activist philosophy. In other words, human behavior always has a social impact. When an action is received positively, people are more likely to do so. Act to act like this.

Incentive theory differs from other motivational theories such as drive theory in terms of motivation. In incentive theory, stimuli "attract" people and drive them. From an activist point of view, incentive theory involves positive reinforcement. Reinforcement stimuli are conditioned to make people happy. In contrast to neo-behavioral motive theory with negative reinforcement, one stimulus is associated with the release of punishment-lack of homeostasis in the body. For example, I noticed that eating hungry eliminates the feeling of hunger, and thirst eliminates the negative feelings of thirst.

Intrinsic motivation exists in the man or woman and is pushed through pleasurable inner rewards as opposed to counting on outside pressures or extrinsic rewards. It includes an hobby in or entertainment of the interest itself. For example, an athlete may also experience gambling soccer for the experience, as opposed to for an award. Activities related to their very own inherent praise offer motivation that isn't depending on outside rewards. Pursuing demanding situations and dreams comes less complicated and is greater fun while one is intrinsically inspired to finish a sure objective, for example, due to the fact the man or woman is greater interested by gaining knowledge of, as opposed to attaining the purpose. It has been argued that intrinsic motivation is related to expanded subjective well-being and that it's miles vital for cognitive, social, and bodily development. It also can be discovered in animal behavior, for example, while organisms have interaction in playful and curiosity-pushed behaviors with inside the absence of praise. According to a few theorists, the 2 important factors for intrinsic motivation are self-dedication or autonomy and competence. On this view, the purpose of the behavior should be inner and the man or woman who engages with inside the behavior should understand that the challenge will increase their competence. Social-contextual occasions like comments and reinforcement can purpose emotions of competence and consequently make a contribution to intrinsic motivation. However, emotions of competence will now no longer growth intrinsic motivation if there may be no experience of autonomy. In conditions in which choices, emotions, and possibilities are present, intrinsic motivation is expanded due to the fact humans sense a more experience of autonomy. Some research advocate that there may be a poor correlation among outside rewards and intrinsic motivation, i.e. that through supplying excessive outside rewards for an interest, the intrinsic motivation for undertaking it has a tendency to be lower.

Various research has centered at the intrinsic motivation of college students. They advocate that intrinsically inspired college students are much more likely to have interaction with inside the challenge willingly in addition to paintings to enhance their talents, which has a tendency to growth their capabilities. Students are probable to be intrinsically inspired if they:

  • characteristic their instructional consequences to elements below their very own manipulate, additionally referred to as autonomy or locus of manipulate;
  • agree with they've the talents to be powerful dealers in achieving their favored dreams, additionally referred to as self-efficacy ideals;
  • are interested by learning a topic, now no longer simply in attaining accurate grades.

Traditionally, researcher’s notion of motivations to apply laptop structures to be ordinarily pushed through extrinsic purposes; however, many current structures have their use pushed ordinarily through intrinsic motivations. Examples of such structures used ordinarily to satisfy users` intrinsic motivations encompass on line gaming, digital worlds, on line shopping, gaining knowledge of/schooling, on line dating, virtual tune repositories, social networking, on line pornography, gamified structures, and well-known gamification. Intrinsic motivation has a tendency to be greater long-lasting, self-sustaining, and pleasurable than extrinsic motivation. For this reason, many efforts in schooling intention to alter intrinsic motivation with the purpose of selling pupil gaining knowledge of overall performance and creativity. But numerous research advocate that intrinsic motivation is difficult to alter or inspire. Attempts to recruit current intrinsic motivators require an individualized approach: they involve identifying and making relevant the different motivators needed to motivate different students. This usually requires additional skills from the instructor. Mindfulness has been found to be an intraindividual factor that supports autonomous motivation and thereby contributes to intrinsic motivation.

Extrinsic motivation

External motivation occurs when a person is driven by external influences. These are either rewarding (money, good grades, fame, etc.) or disciplinary (punishment threat, pain, etc.). The difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation lies in the driving force behind behavior. When someone is motivated in nature, they engage in the activity because it is interesting, fun, or rewarding in nature. With external motivation, the agent's goal is a desirable outcome that is different from the activity itself. Agents can have both intrinsic and extrinsic motives for the same activity, but usually one type of motive is more important than the other. Playing tennis and winning awards is an example of external motivation in play, as enjoying the game involves internal motivation.

Some studies have shown that extrinsic rewards can lead to excessive reasoning and subsequent reduced intrinsic motivation. In the study that demonstrates this effect, the children who draw the band and the gold star and the children shorter the drawing material as children assigned to the unexpected insulting state will be shortened. This suggests that the trend is to take care of the activity itself when rewards are expected. Other studies suggest that positive or negative rewards can also increase unique motives. This assumes that it is possible that the impact of exogenous motivation for unique motives may depend on the type of compensation. According to the articles "Self-determination theory and alleviation of unique motives, social development and happiness", our essential that we are not inspired by the motivational motive motivation It is not inspired by motivation. However, instead, we met our traumatic motivation instead of strengthening what we do not feel naturally.

The advantage of external motivation is that other people can be used relatively easily so that they are motivated to advance to the goal. The disadvantage is that it may be necessary to monitor the quality of work, as it is not motivated to do a good job. It has also been suggested that extrinsic motivation declines in value over time, making it difficult to motivate the same person in the future. John Marshall Reeve distinguishes between four types of external motivation. This includes varying degrees of autonomy. External regulations, adopted regulations, specified regulations, integrated regulations. External regulation is not the most autonomous form of external motivation. Only the result of the action is counted by the agent. For example, if students want good grades, they are motivated to study for those grades. The regulations introduced come from the impression of what the agent should do. For example, students know that they should study and do not want the guilt that comes with not studying, so they do it. The identified regulations come from what the agent considers to be personally important. In the student example, they may have an understanding that research is important to their success, and will continue their research for this reason. Integrated regulation is the most autonomous form of extrinsic motivation, which arises when motivation arises from a sense of personal identity. This type of extrinsic motivation is very close to, but not entirely, extrinsic motivation. This is because the person is motivated to engage in the activity not because of pure interest or enjoyment, but because of his good expression of his values. In this case, the student studies because it expresses his or her core values and reflects how he or she sees himself as a person. Students who are essentially willing to learn will do so because they find learning interesting and enjoyable.

The Vital Importance and Benefits of Motivation

Why is it important to understand motivation? Why do we care about what people want and why they want it? How about because it can improve our lives?

Understanding motivation gives us many valuable insights into human nature. It explains why we set goals, strive for achievement and power, why we have desires for psychological intimacy and biological sex, why we experience emotions like fear, anger, and compassion. The target can be everything that the person needs to attain, what he needs to realize. As a result, it is not continuously achievable. It may be an item of ponder action, volitional qualities and motivation. As within the case of inside mental forms, the concept of an objective can be anticipated onto the outside world.

Learning about motivation is valuable because it helps us understand where motivation comes from, why it changes, what increases and decreases it, what aspects of it can and cannot be changed, and helps us answer the question of why some types of motivation are more beneficial than others. Motivation represents something unique about each of us and allows us to achieve desired results such as better performance, better health, personal growth, or a sense of purpose. Motivation is a means of altering our behavior. Motivation is a pathway to change our way of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

Benefits of Motivation

It is critical to find strategies to raise motivation since it allows us to modify behavior, develop competences, be creative, set goals, grow interests, make plans, develop talents, and boost engagement. Motivational science can help us motivate employees, coach athletes, parent children, counsel clients, and engage students in everyday life. The advantages of motivation can be seen in the way we live our lives. We require motivation to take remedial action in the face of changing circumstances because we are continually responding to changes in our surroundings. Motivation is a valuable resource that enables us to adapt, perform efficiently, and stay healthy in the face of a never-ending stream of possibilities and hazards.

There are many health benefits about motivation. Motivation as a psychological state is related to our physiology. When our motivation is exhausted, our functional ability and well-being are impaired. However, unhealthy fluctuations in motivation also explain addiction, gambling, risk-taking, and excessive internet use. The underlying motivations for addictive behavior share the neurological basis associated with the complex internal workings of dopamine-centric reward systems and pleasure circuits.

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Список литературы

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Рустамова, Ч.Б. Мотивация — это желание действовать на благо цели / Ч.Б. Рустамова. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 131. — С. 131-133. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/19104 (дата обращения: 30.06.2022).