«Авесто» в интерпретации исторических источников-свидетельств религии, науки, духовности и культуры

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В статье рассматривается древний уникальный памятник мировой культуры, в том числе истории народов Средней Азии и Ирана, священная книга зороастризма «Авесто».

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The Avesto is considered to be the most unique source as a sacred book of Zoroastrianism and still attracts the attention of scholars. The scientific and religious significance of this masterpiece is enormous. The Avesto is an ancient and unique monument of not only religious but also secular knowledge, historical events and happenings, countries, socio-economic life, cultural and enlightenment views, customs of the peoples, the history of world culture, including the peoples of Central Asia and Iran. The unique historical monument is one of the sources of interest to scholars from both the West and the East.

In his book "We are building our future with our own hands", our first President IA Karimov said that the history of the Uzbek people is very long and unique: We are not a nation that appeared yesterday in the square, our nation has been living in the land of ancient Khorezm since the time of the Avesto with its own life, its own culture, its own history. did not say. Zoroastrianism originated in the Middle East in the 1st century AD and is the holy book of the Avesta. The main prophet of Zoroastrianism is Zoroaster, and Zoroastrianism is associated with his name. According to ancient legends, the texts of the Avesta were written in the language of Zoroaster, the founder and prophet of Zoroastrianism, by his student. A 21-volume part of the Avesta has survived, and researchers have identified it as the remains of a huge collection of lost monuments. The oldest texts of the Avesto date back to BC. It dates back to the 2nd millennium. His collection, which dates back to the 7th century, contains a variety of information and, as noted above, consists of 21 books. It contains all the knowledge of that time and still serves the younger generation religiously and spiritually.

According to Zoroastrian tradition, this monument is a revelation of Ahuramazda, the god of Goodness and Light, to Zarathustra. It also depicts ancient mythological imagery, the prevalence of myths, and excerpts from heroic epic legends. At the same time, religious teachings became a developed "symbol of faith" of Zoroastrianism, even after the "prophetic era". To this day, there are differing opinions as to who created the Avesto, and the famous orientalist E.E. According to Bertels, this work was written in 1278 by Rayd Zoroaster ibn Bahrom ibn Pajdu. The above idea is based on some of the ideas expressed in the epic "Zoroastrianism". In particular, the epic tells about the birth of Avesto and Zend by Zoroaster, his birth and later life. The religion founded by Zoroaster spread to many places during his lifetime. The teachings and ideas of Zoroastrianism became even more widespread after Zoroaster's death. The Avesto was created in the late 6th and early 4th centuries BC and is a product of long periods, repeated over time. Various scholars, as well as Arabic, Russian, and Uzbek scholars, have tried to comprehensively analyze the content of the unique work. In fact, the Avesto contains many meaningful ideas, for example, enlightenment ideas about the development of the human personality are expressed in a certain system. Through the ideas of this work, we get very important information about the natural, scientific, educational and social views of the peoples who lived in the territory of our country in ancient times. The Avesto is not only religious in nature, but also philosophical, political, philological, educational, and pedagogical. Abu Rayhan Beruni, in his Memoirs of Ancient Peoples, says that Zoroastrianism spread from ancient Khorasan, Persia, Iraq, and Balkh to Syria. Legend has it that the first "sacred fire" of Zoroastrianism was lit in Khorezm. The country of Ayriana Vayjo described in the Avesto may have been Khorezm. In this country, Ahura-Mazda gave the appearance of Zoroaster. The image of the legendary country "Ayriana Vayjo" preserved in the work "Avesto" fully corresponds to the geographical conditions of Khorezm.

This book has come down to us in two copies. The first of these copies is a collection of prayers called Vendidat-sede, meaning Pure Vendidat. This book includes Yasna and Vispered. The second book, like the first, contains Vendidat, Yasna, and Vispered, with commentary. The annotated translation is called "Zand" (in the Eastern sense). That is why the commentary copy of the work is called "Avesto and Zand" or "Zand Avesto". According to the second version, the work "Avesto" consists of the following parts:

  1. The Vendidat consists of 22 chapters, mainly in the form of a question-and-answer session between Ahura Mazda and Zoroaster. It includes the conquest of evil spirits, giants, the rules of purification from sin, and mythological elements;
  2. "Vispered". It consists of 24 chapters and includes prayer songs;
  3. "Yasna". The Yasnas consist of 72 chapters. During religious services, he also composed songs, hymns, and other hymns to the gods. Chapter 17 of this section is called Goths. The Goths are the oldest parts of the Avesto;
  4. Ages. The Yashts contain 22 hymns sung in honor of the gods and goddesses of Zoroastrianism;
  5. Little Avesto (Little Avesto, Khvartak-apastak). It consists of a small hymn in honor of the Sun, Moon, Ardvisura, Mitra, fire and other gods and goddesses.

Avesto is of great importance as an educational resource. As mentioned above, Zoroaster reformed the content of the views that became the religious beliefs of the members of the ancient tribes. The advanced idea of Zoroastrianism is that Ahura Mazda (the Almighty God) is the epitome of justice and goodness that exists in the world. Anhra Mani (Evil Spirit) causes all evils. Based on the essence of his views on the content of the Avesto, which have come down to us in the passages that have come down to us, the following conclusions can be drawn: For example, while the first chapter classifies the lands ruled by evil and enmity, Ahurmaz is interpreted as the founder of the Land of Peace and Justice, and Anhra Manyu as the sower of the seeds of ignorance. Thus, since the creation of the source, it has been proving the view that good will always triumph over evil. This work will continue to serve the younger generation in a religious, spiritual and enlightening way.

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Список литературы

  1. Karimov I.A. On the way to spiritual growth. T., 1998 y.
  2. Karimov I.A. There is no future without historical memory. T., 1998 y.
  3. T.Karimov. The Avesto Bible. 2001.


Хамраева, Х.А. «Авесто» в интерпретации исторических источников-свидетельств религии, науки, духовности и культуры / Х.А. Хамраева. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 132. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/19159 (дата обращения: 23.05.2022).