Становление узбекской народной педагогики и нравственно-образовательные вопросы в «авесте»

NovaInfo 94, с.151-153, скачать PDF
Раздел: Педагогические науки
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Статья раскрывает сущность понятия народная педагогика – идеи людей по проблеме воспитания, сохранившиеся в устном виде и дошедшие до нас в традициях, обычаях, обрядах, ритуалах, играх, фольклоре и т.д.

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Evidence of the past indicate that since the middle of the I Millennium BC the tribes that lived in Transoxiana — the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Rivers, a significant part of which is now occupied by Uzbekistan, there was a decomposition of the tribal system and the formation of large slave-owning States. The abundance of heat, fertile land contributed to the development of agriculture based on irrigation. These States: Sogdiana, Bactria, Khorezm, Margiana — had broad ties with the peoples who lived in neighboring territories: in the North — with Turkic nomads-pastoralists, in the South — with Iranian-speaking sedentary. According to ancient sources in Central Asia (Bactria, Sogdiana and Khorezm) before the arrival of the Arabs there was a local writing. On the basis of Aramaic writing, Khorezm and Sogdian writing emerged, on the basis of which the ancient Turkic runic writing was created. In Bactria, Sogd and Khorezm there were many educated people who knew the calendars of irrigation and crops, the technique of construction of canals, agricultural calendars. In Sogdiana they began to teach writing and arithmetic at the age of 5. There were schools in every city. Educational institutions have absorbed the traditions of Patriarchal-family, craft education and apprenticeship. The main form of training: Ustoz-shogird (master student). Master taught craft, reading, writing, arithmetic and was obliged to arrange his student to work. Training was paid. The main method of education in the master, as in the family-an example of older. The purpose of training was to prepare for the profession, which is traditionally engaged in family members. Family is the primary link of education. His profession was to give the children the priests, musicians, artisans, etc. In ancient Merv (V century) young men were taught military art. Didactic instruction "Oginome" set the task — to prepare soldiers persistent and hardened. Oginome — the content of the military physical education: running, jumping, discus and javelin, archery, wrestling, unarmed combat, swimming.

Moral and educational issues in "Avesta"

In VII-VI centuries BC Zoroastrian religion was formed on the territory of Central Asia.

"Avesta" is a collection of sacred books of Zoroastrianism. Was 21 book, survived-3. "Avesta" for centuries served as a textbook for students.

Education should be considered the most important riser of life. Everyone needs to be educated so that he, having learned to read and write, rose to a higher level (Zaratushtra "Avesta").

According to "Avesta" education and training of children included: 1) religious and moral education; 2) physical education; 3) teaching reading and writing. The purpose of moral education is to bring up diligence, justice, kindness. Physical education-to prepare for military Affairs. Types of military training: riding, hunting, swordsmanship, shield, swimming, running, javelin, etc.

The basis of moral norms of the religion of Zoroaster (Avesta)

In "Avesta" such human qualities as knowledge (possession of a profession) were glorified; justice, humanity, kindness, modesty, courage, friendliness, hospitality, patriotism, etc.

Beginning Uzbek folk pedagogy in oral folk art

Folk pedagogy — is people's thoughts on various issues of education, which was preserved orally and handed down in the traditions, customs, ceremonies, rituals, games, folklore, etc. Perpetuating tradition, folk pedagogy manifested in the material laws and customs. Uzbek folk pedagogy has absorbed the age-old customs of child-rearing. The Uzbek people created epic poems, a variety of fairy tales, songs, Proverbs and sayings, riddles and parables that have enduring cognitive and educational value. People expressed their attitude to the role of education in the proverb: "A child is a jewel, but a great jewel is education". The themes of Uzbek Proverbs are diverse. Most Proverbs are the code of folk pedagogy. They contain unwritten laws and rules of human relations, pedagogical norms of the hostel, the concept of a person about good and evil, diligence, methods and means of education, training, etc. Very many Uzbek folk songs, has peda-logicheskim content, e.g., "Er-er" (wedding song, performed in unison, "Lapar", "Ulan", "Lyricist of the term" that "Cush good" etc. In the national pedagogy of the song has always been an important means of education. The desire of the people to bring up a harmonious, physically strong and healthy personality, led to the creation of various forms of exercise in the form of games. You can list a lot of games that have come to us since ancient times ("Kurash"," Alchin uyin"," Horse games", etc.). An important means of competitive gaming communication were puzzles that took pride of place in the oral folk art. Riddles and still live in the people not only as a form and means of entertainment, but also as a kind of school education, development of children's ingenuity, ingenuity. A special place in folk pedagogy is a folk epic — get. They reflected the moral and ethical ideas: hard work; a strong unity of people; collaborative, agree farming; humanism; respect for the elderly, women, the care of young children; humanity; the truth of; courage; the ruthlessness of the enemies.

Democratic ideas reflected in the monuments of native pedagogy represent the soil on which grew many of the provisions of the scientific education and, in particular, had a positive impact on the attitudes of prominent representatives of the Uzbek educational thoughts of modern educators. All of them with the mother's milk absorbed a certain amount of folk customs, ideas, views, which subsequently formed the basis of their pedagogical views.

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Тошбоева, Ш.А. Становление узбекской народной педагогики и нравственно-образовательные вопросы в «авесте» / Ш.А. Тошбоева. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2018. — № 94. — С. 151-153. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/16046 (дата обращения: 28.06.2022).