Авесто — уникальный источник для изучения древней истории Узбекистана

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Аннотация

В статье рассматривается книга «Авесто» как священный источник и специфический быт, хозяйственная деятельность, общественно-культурная жизнь, обычаи и традиции древних народов, проживавших в нашем регионе в начале и середине тысячелетия до н.э. освещает картины.

Ключевые слова

ЗАНД, ЯШТ, КАВИ, АВЕСТО, ХОРЕЗМ, ЗОРОАСТР, ЗОРОАСТРИЗМ, АХУРАМАЗДА, ВЕНДИДАД, ВЕСПИРЕД, ЯСНА

Текст научной работы

In fact, the sacred "Avesto" is one of our distant history's masterpieces, glorifying the ideas of monotheism, humanity, compassion, diligence, patriotism, and inspiring mankind to creativity. The book "Avesto" describes the unusual way of life, economic activities, socio-cultural life, customs and rituals of the ancient peoples who lived in our region in the first and second millennia BC. It is an important historical source of information.

Also Avesto is such an important part of our indigenous history, many people are curious as to when, where, and by whom this one-of-a-kind source was created. Scientists have discovered the true homeland of this great doctrine through an in-depth study of historical sources, beginning with a careful examination of the basic geographical areas, names of countries, occupations, customs, and burials mentioned in the Avesto. Central Asia proved to be the Khorezm oasis. The Avesto mentions Central Asia in many of the 16 major regional names.

The founder of the Avesto doctrine is a man named Zoroaster (Zarathustra in the Avesto language, Zoroastrian in Greek), who went down in history as a prophet. Zoroaster means "Golden Camel" or "Golden Camel Leader". Zoroaster propagated his Zoroastrian ideas among the population. The process was extremely difficult, complicated, and I had to wander from region to region. For this reason, whether Zoroaster traveled to Iran, Media, Mesopotamia, or Central Asia, he traveled extensively and sought to spread his tenets. It should also be noted that Bactria was one of the first countries to accept and allow Zoroastrianism (Greek / Oroastrianism) to spread among its citizens. According to the great scholar Beruni's legend, Zoroaster came to the king of Bactria Gishtasp and Queen Khutaosa and prayed to God to prove the sanctity of the Avesto doctrine, and then asked them to press hot copper on his body. Gishtasp and his wife, and later the entire population of Bactria, adopted the Zoroastrian faith after the fiery copper did not harm his body.

Previously, the Avesto consisted of 21 books. According to Abu Rayhan Beruni's book "Monuments of the Past", during the reign of King Darius of Iran, the Avesto was completely inscribed in golden letters on the skins of 12,000 black cattle. During the conquest of the East by Alexander the Great, Zoroastrian temples were destroyed by his order, and 5 to 3 parts of the sacred Avesto were burned. Later, during the reigns of the Parthian kings Vologcz I and Vologez V (I-II centuries), the remains of the Avesto were collected. During the Sassanid period (\ U-IV centuries) parts of the "Avesto" were compiled and re-published in the Pahlavi language. So far, the Goths, Yasna, Vandidot, Yashtiar, Vispirad, and the Little Avesto have arrived from a total of 21 chapters of the Avesto. In connection with the celebration of the 2700th anniversary of the Avesto in our country, it was first translated into Uzbek and published in 2001.

"Avesto" was created in such a historical period that, by this time, at the beginning of the last millennium BC, the peoples, nations, and tribes living in various parts of the country had progressed to a new stage of socioeconomic development. Settlement of tribes in the region's Khorezm, Bactria, and Sogdiana regions, as well as the emergence and development of a farming culture based on artificial irrigation systems, as an independent livestock economic network. The emergence of cities, fortresses, and, finally, the first state structures was clearly alluded to. In the context of such a sharp turn in history, it was critical to spiritually and spiritually unite different tribes and peoples, to instill progressive views, feelings of commonality, and faith principles in their consciousness. The Avesto doctrine is founded, on the one hand, on the liberation of local tribes and peoples from the influence of various local heresies and superstitions, on the other, on the deep-rooted, strengthened ethnic formation of local ethnic groups, and, on the third, on the production process. expanding, giving a significant impetus to the process of improving social relations. Furthermore, in addition to the universal significance and essence of Zoroastrianism, the Avesto contains important information about the existence of our country's first system of government. The man who ruled the country was called Kavi. V'yaha refers to the council of elders, also known as "varzanapoti", "Hanjamana", or the people's assembly.

According to various sources, ancient crafts such as jewelry, pottery, weaving, and blacksmithing all developed in their own unique way. The Avesto's main goddess — Ahura Mazda, the goddess of goodness, light, goodness, happiness — the symbol of evil, wickedness, darkness, depravity — the idea of a constant uncompromising struggle between Ahriman is Zoroastrianism. Ahura, as a Zoroastrian prophet, is a caller to the people, to the people, to convey the sacred words, exhortations, and verses revealed in Mazda's language. After all, whenever Zoroaster contemplates a problem, Ahura mentions the name Mazda and refers to him. "We glorify Ahura Mazda, who created the animal, the water and the plant, the light and the earth," he says at one point. In the Avesto, the material world and being are sanctified. Pollution of land, water, air, spitting on fire is the gravest sin. In Zoroastrianism, fire is sanctified and glorified as a symbol of human happiness. Therefore, many shows of our ancestors, ceremonies of joy were held in connection with the lighting of fires, the construction of a wide circle around the line. Some of these habits are still preserved today. The towns were specially built fireplaces in the busiest parts of the population settlements, which were always full of pilgrims. According to Zoroastrian teachings, a life of constant rest takes place in this world of living human beings, not in an imaginary paradise that is long unknown to man. This is a goal, and in order to reach the finish line, people have to go through many complex and serious tests.

Thus, the holy book "Avesto" serves as an important programmatic source in the study of our great ancestors' comprehensive lifestyle, lifelong traditions, education, and management system. Linda's deep reflection on universal ideas spread over a wide area, was recognized in the East and the West, and had a positive impact on the spiritual upliftment of various peoples. Even in our current state of independence, the ideas of this doctrine have proven to be of great importance, enriching the psyche of our people as one of the sources of our true spirituality.

Читайте также

Список литературы

  1. Karimov I.A. On the way to spiritual growth. T., 1998 y
  2. Karimov I.A. There is no future without historical memory. T., 1998 y.
  3. N.Rahmonov. The emergence of the Avesto. "O'zbekiston ovozi" 2001, 26. 8. N.

Цитировать

Хамраева, Х.А. Авесто — уникальный источник для изучения древней истории Узбекистана / Х.А. Хамраева, Х.А. Хамраева. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 132. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/19166 (дата обращения: 23.05.2022).

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