Особенности применения методологии управления проектами при разработке программных продуктов

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Статья посвящена особенностям применения различных техник методологии управления проектами, на разных ранних стадиях производства программных продуктов. Приведен и разобран ряд, наиболее эффективных инструментов. Выявлена главная цель применения методологии управления проектами при производстве программных продуктов.

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What project management is?

In nowadays world, Project Management is a method of achieving a goal, by performing specific tasks in a planned sequence. The key task of Project Management as a discipline is to achieve a balance between three key indicators for each project: project cost, the time of its execution and the final quality. Throughout the history of humanity, people were approaching the situations which required huge number of people. At various times, such efforts were needed to accomplish different tasks, like the creation of the Hanging Gardens (VII century BC), the Great Wall of China (III century BC) or Columbus journey into uncharted waters of modern America (XV century AD. e) - all of these examples are important projects which require common efforts of many individuals.

Creation of projects always happened, but for the most part works were carried out to achieve the goal without any centralized, designed to meet specific needs cooperation method of available resources. When you conduct the project this way, the loss of effectiveness of available means to achieve can be enormous.

Project management is the universal method for constructing production processes, and that is why most of its ideas and mechanisms are valid for solving problems in various areas of activity, whether it is building a multistory building or developing apps for smartphones. With such a big range of use, it inevitably affects the management of projects in each of them.

Features of Project Management in the field of software development.

The key feature of the development process of building software programs is the instability. This sphere of activity implies a permanent change in the development process. It is related primarily to the constant development of technologies and their using. So, if the team can afford to constantly review and edit the plan of action, the more effective is the use of its resources.

The function of project manager is to reduce losses in all stages of development. Usually it is the reduction or, if possible, elimination of downtimes, occurring during development of software. Downtimes are critical for the increase of the cost of product but not the increase of its value to the consumer, and therefore is a pure loss. Thus, all the processes that occur in the development are losses if they promote an increase of the final product. Even a fine working feature that is not used is a loss.

Stages of the production cycle:

  1. Making the requirements;
  2. Planning / design;
  3. Development;
  4. Testing;
  5. Output;
  6. Support

To understand the purpose and the purpose of these steps it is worth to ask certain questions to each of them and make some clarifications.

I. Formation of requirements - the key issues for this phase will be the "what" and " for whom? " Answers to these questions provide the basis for further work as well as become a prism for the solution of many problems that will happen in the development process.

At this stage, occurs the following:

  • Unique Selling Points - specific, measurable parameters that answer to the question "what is the best for you?";
  • Priorities – determination of importance of the tasks occurs on the stage of preparation


  1. Vision - concept of whole project on one page;
  2. TT - technical tasks.

Way to improve the efficiency:

In order to improve efficiency at the stage of determining the target audience you can create one or more characters. They should be common consumer models, with the written names, environment, habits, life values ​​and views. This method helps to filter ideas according to the parameters of the target audience. In addition, there may be "history" of the character. History of character is a collection of case studies, with which he came on in his life. The developer’s goal is to continue the solutions for anticipated problems. Another way to increase efficiency is to pass client requests through USP, as in the field of software development there were cases of absolute ignorance of the customer, making the requests not objective.

II. Planning / design - functional objective of this phase is the optimal allocation of resources. Key questions - "What do we do?", "When? ", "Who?".


  1. Architecture
  2. Milestone
  3. Deliverable

Ways to improve the efficiency:

  • Competitors - before you start to develop you should evaluate similar projects and identify the competitors’ best and worst features. Read the comments and opinions of users. All of the above can be found on the internet.
  • B, A – firstly the evaluation of goals and secondly - available resources. An understanding of the resources available and the ultimate goals, which will allow to predict the path from A to B. If the detection of shortages of resources will happen, additional capacity must be originally budgeted;
  • Research / development - the division of tasks on uncertain and linear;
  • In-house / outsourcing - the division of key tasks (performed by a team) and minor (can be outsourced);
  • Continuous rescheduling with the changes that leads to greater efficiency.

III. Development - at the stage of development happens the actual creation of value.


  1. Work Product

Ways to improve the efficiency:

  • Code style - a single style, understandable to all staff responsible for programming that allows them to be useful in terms of editing and use the total body.
  • Do not save on hardware - usually the employee time is worth more;
  • Use tools to make the development simpler.

IV. Testing - it should be understood that the test in its traditional meaning (search for bugs) is a loss, because it does not bring extra value but spends resources.


  1. More stable product

Ways to improve the efficiency:

  • Involve the testing department at the stage of planning;
  • Movement of various builds within the group of testers – doesn’t make employees tired.


Of the above, we can conclude - the effectiveness of project management in the development of software, from the system of envy, flexibility and correct execution of specific stages of production. The primary outcome of the final product is a value, which implies that the question “whether it adds value to the final product?".

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Список литературы

  3. Shergin D. Development of an efficient production process in software development. 2013.


Пивнев, Д.И. Особенности применения методологии управления проектами при разработке программных продуктов / Д.И. Пивнев. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2015. — № 34. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/3612 (дата обращения: 18.08.2022).