Педагогические конфликты и их разрешение

№48-2,

психологические науки

В статье рассматривается проблема конфликтов в образовательном пространстве между педагогом и учеником. Автор выделяет несколько фаз процесса протекания педагогического конфликта, а также предлагает способы его разрешения.

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The conflict is the any contradiction arising between subjects. The pedagogical conflict is a contradiction between subjects too, but subjects are the tutor and the pupil. On the basis of a contradiction personal development and development of the interpersonal relations is carried out. The empty and substantial conflicts differ. The first evolves from unstable mental health. His permission doesn't demand difficult technology, and only removals of mental tension of the interlocutor by manifestation of care, attention. Depending on extent of development of the substantial conflict also the technology of his pedagogical permission becomes complicated. The most difficult for pupils (and teachers) a type of the relations where it is more difficult to achieve a consent, cooperation. Not incidentally A.S. Makarenko considered necessary education at school students of two abilities: "abilities to order and abilities to submit".

Distinction of the relations generates discrepancy of norms, values and interests that often leads to the conflicts. Here it is possible to allocate three phases of course of a pedagogical situation:

1 PHASE – the conflict sharp beginning with obvious violation of socially valuable norms and values by one of participants of a situation.

2 PHASE – response of "rival" on which form and content the result of the conflict depends, and, the most important, - the last, i.e. the direction of reorganization of the relations which have developed earlier.

3 PHASE – rather fast and radical change of the occurring norms and values in 2 various directions – improvements or deteriorations in earlier developed relations.

Concrete pedagogical situations, especially sharp and conflict, arise both at skilled, and at the beginning teachers. Very important for the teacher to get out of a conflict situation with the advantage and creative satisfaction in the work.

Ways of resolution of conflict, especially if he hasn't come far, are known and available to everyone is a tenderness, humour and a joke. In more difficult situations we resort to a compromise, doing concessions each other, or we address the third, independent person (arbitration court), or we carry out the analysis, seeking to understand ourselves and the acts and only in exceptional cases we use coercion and temporary parting. The teacher has no right to go for conflict creation if he doesn't own technology of resolution of conflict. The conflict is created at that moment or it is carried to such level when there is a mutual need for his permission.

1. Creation of psychological climate

Creation of psychological climate in group is one of the most important and most complex challenges of the teacher with children. Psychological climate – the qualitative party of the interpersonal relations, set of the psychological conditions promoting or interfering productive joint activity and all-round development of the personality in group. The favorable psychological climate is the atmosphere of a freedom, mutual respect, friendliness, sensitivity, creates comfort and conditions for work, opens possibilities of the personality. The adverse climate interferes with personal development, plunging the person into a condition of vulnerability, nervousness, fear and despair.

Technologically influence on climate is provided with set of the operations corresponding to the following rules:

  • establishment of personal contacts;
  • the encouraging, approving relation in operating time;
  • the ethical nobility consisting in disinterested aid, openness and pleasure for another;
  • the prevention of possible failures in process and result of work;
  • the audiovisual art row created by use of musical fragments, slides. It removes uneasiness, gives rise to confidence;
  • introduction of a novelty aspect due to use of various means. It distracts from difficulties, carries away and removes psychological clips, promotes creative manifestation of each child.

2. Group activity

Group activity can be considered not only as out-of-class action, but also a lesson. Content of group activity at a lesson is defined by knowledge which is offered to children for consideration. Organizing fixed activities for assimilation of knowledge, the teacher can proceed from two positions in relation to children. First, the teacher treats pupils, as passive participants of educational process, observers whose task includes perception of material. At such position: the teacher – the subject of activity at a lesson, pupils carry out an object role. In - the second, consideration of group of children as set of the subject of the activity organized at a lesson. If in the first option the teacher, as a rule, uses the order, the instruction, the order as strict requirements to children, then in the second case he addresses a request, council more, recommendations and by that promotes development of consciousness of the pupils.

Increase of result of group activity such operations as establishment of personal contact with children, removal from them of fear of the forthcoming activity, granting an opportunity to each child to prove individually promote. Realization of this function at a lesson dictates to the teacher need to build activities for development of knowledge so that children comprehended not only real facts of science, but also realized for the sake of what it is necessary constantly to seek to go on the way of expansion of the ideas of the world and the regularities occurring in him. Such technology influences development and formation of subjectivity of the pupil, allowing it to join more actively in activity, commensurating and realizing the opportunities.

3. Creation of a situation of success and failure

Specifics of children's age such is that everything, for whatever the child undertook, he should master anew. Whether means it that the teacher has to accompany the child, adapt to his interests and mood? At all not. It should be noted only real achievements, it is necessary to promote this success. The loser at school and houses is a potential loser at work, in a family, in life. Without feeling of success at the child interest in school, in study therefore creation for the school student of a situation of success is justified vanishes. Technologically it is reached by a number of operations: the encouraging words and soft intonations, a communication correctness, the unimpassioned and benevolent speech. The situation of success is especially important in work with children whose behavior is complicated by a number of the reasons.

The situation of failure is a subjective emotional experience, dissatisfaction itself in the course and result of commission of activity. It can't be considered in a separation from a success situation but only as a stage upon transition from one success to another. Pedagogical purpose of a situation of failure, as well as a success situation, consists in creation of conditions for individual development of the child.

Opportunity and need of creation of a situation of failure appears in the presence of certain conditions without which it turns into the rigid tool of manipulation with the child. First, it can be rich resources of the personality when the exceptional child during some time still manages to receive good results, but gradually such indifference to itself becomes a brake for development of his personality. Secondly, high self-esteem that leads to negligence to people around. It leads him to rejection. Creation of a situation of success against already high self-esteem won't help him. The only thing that the teacher has to make is to create a failure situation to promote understanding by the pupil of the achievements and failures.

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