Medical psychology can not be considered as an independent science, because its subject, as well as the subject of General psychology, is the mental life of an individual and the laws of interpersonal communication. Medical psychology uses the conceptual apparatus and a set of methods of General psychology to solve specific problems arising in the process of medical care. Knowledge of these tasks allows you to better use the information to see in a dry theoretical claims in concrete, practical sense, the optimal way of resolving conflicts and coping with stress.
In its task of medical psychology strongly differs from a purely medical science like psychiatry. If psychiatry is aimed at identifying pathological forms of response and their treatment, psychology analyzes the behavior of mentally healthy people in a situation of illness and medical activity. Possession of the basics of psychology allows you to see common to all people mental reactions. This approach allows to overcome the rejection of someone else's point of view and form a sense of trust between the doctor and the patient.
The purpose of medical psychology coincides with the purpose of medicine in General — is the pursuit of health, which means not only physiological but also psychological well-being. Dissatisfaction with the results of treatment signal about ill health, even if the doctor does not find objective signs of illness. This dissatisfaction forces the patient to turn to doctors again and again, to use various (sometimes doubtful) advices, to feel medicines and medical methods which can appear not only useless, but also harmful.
Psychological knowledge can be used in medicine for:
- diagnostics of psychosomatic and somatoform disorders
- expertise in case of deliberate concealment of truth
-prediction of patient behavior in the conditions of examination and treatment
-involvement of the patient and his relatives in the treatment process and
-building confidence and trust in doctor by enhancing its credibility
-overcoming the psychological stress of health professionals
-formation of a favorable working climate in the medical team
-psychotherapeutic treatment of somatic and mental disorders
- alleviate the suffering caused by the disease in the patient and his relatives
At first glance, the success of treatment depends more on the special professional knowledge and skills of the doctor than on his psychological training. However, psychological illiteracy can prevent even the most knowledgeable Clinician to apply their experience in practice.
Thus, already at the stage of diagnosis, the doctor constantly has to face both involuntary and intentional distortion of the real facts, the patient's caution or prejudice. Psychologically correct conversation helps not only to detect purposeful deception, but also to reveal the hidden psychological motives of the disease, without knowledge of which it is impossible to achieve recovery. A great difficulty is the diagnosis of so-called somatoform disorders, ie. mental illness is manifested solely somatic complaints (masked depression, hysteria, hypochondria). In any case, the correct diagnosis is the key to the success of both psychotherapy and drug treatment.
In drawing up a plan for examination and treatment, it is important to take into account the specifics of the situation and the personality of the patient in order to reject those tasks that will be impossible or extremely difficult to solve. You can be sure that some treatments that require special care and endurance, will not suit any patient. So, recommended by doctors diet and exercise complexes in most cases are not performed. In this case, doctors deceive themselves, waiting for the recovery of patients after their prescribed course of treatment. This does not allow them to use other tactics of treatment and prevention (drugs, surgical intervention, etc.). Knowledge of the characteristics of the individual patient allows to predict its behavior in the therapeutic situation and to propose tactics that will not only pathogenic microorganisms.-neticesi reasonable, but doable.
The doctor has to work in conditions of intense competition of opinions. The sick person receives an incredible amount of advice from relatives, neighbors, colleagues, on the pages of popular magazines, from TV programs, from healers-nepro — professionals. Turning to doctors, he is faced with the lack of unity in the opinions of various experts. Therefore, a professional doctor should make sure that his point of view was the most attractive, saved the patient from incompetence of the inhabitants. The doctor, who takes offense at the patient for rejecting his advice, most likely, does not notice his psychological incompetence. He is not concerned that his opinion was pre-presented to the patients in the best possible way, which means not-quite professional. Often, in order to persuade the patient to his side, it is necessary to call his relatives into allies. If relatives act as opponents of the doctor, it is not necessary to count on the success of treatment.
Recently, much talk about the commercial effectiveness of medicine. The use of psychological techniques allows to increase the credibility of the official medicine, to attract patients ' funds to support those medical institutions that provide real help in the fight against the disease. The refusal to use psychology can lead to the fact that the best hospitals will be deprived of funds for their work, will lose in a competitive fight against unprofessional and incompetent, but psychologically gifted practices.