Тренинг как групповой метод обучения

№87-1,

психологические науки

Термин «тренинг» (от английского train, training) имеет ряд значений — «воспитание, обучение, подготовка, тренировка». Групповой психологический тренинг выходит за эти рамки и используется, в самом широком смысле, в целях развития, психокоррекции, обучения и диагностики.

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The term " training "(from English train, training) has a number of meanings — "education, training, training". Group psychological training goes beyond this and is used, in the broadest sense, for development, psychocorrection, training and diagnosis.

At present, there are probably as many definitions of group psychological training as there are authors describing them. If we analyze the definitions of psychological training in various sources, it seems that they are all similar to the description of the elephant in the famous metaphor, when everyone "sees" something different in accordance with his point of view. In our opinion, the most common but successful definition of group psychological training is proposed by N. Y. cartilaginous And S. I. Makshanov, representing the training as "a multifunctional method of intentional changes in psychological phenomena of a person, group and organization for the purpose of harmonization of Pro-professional and personal life of a person".

Training groups are usually understood as all specially created small groups, whose members, with the assistance of a leading psychologist, are included in a kind of experience of intensive communication and interaction, focused on solving a variety of psychological problems of participants, their self-improvement, as well as on the development of the group and the solution of group problems.

Let's try to understand the existing ideas about psycho-logical training and identify the most common (key) concept in its definition.

In a number of works of domestic psychologists psychological training is considered as one of the active methods of training. Training is an important element of training, however, in our opinion, this term is not a key characteristic of psychological training, fully revealing its essence. As well as not quite successfully the concept of "activity" in relation to the method. As S. I. notes. Makshanov, the separation of methods by the criterion of their activity may not seem correct enough, since the method itself can not be active or passive, activity is rather a property of the subject, not of the method.

Other authors attribute group psychological training to psychological methods of influence. However, the term "impact" rather reflects the procedural characteristics of training as a method and does not reveal its full essence.

The concept of development (individual qualities) is also not common for psychological training. As noted by O. p. Kondaurova1, during the training, psychological characteristics can not only develop, but also slow down, and some skills are formed anew.

In relation to the theory of psychological training in contrast to the "development" Si makshanov introduces a good term "deliberate change". This concept adequately reflects the purpose, process and result of change, emphasizes their conscious nature and is broader in relation to the concept of "development". The concept of "intentional change" allows it to be applied to situations that are not related to development in the accepted understanding, for example, when as a result of intentional change, the relationship of the individual to something is transformed, it is certainly a change, but not Development1. In other words, change is possible without development, development without change is not. Deliberate change includes both development and correction.

Other authors, in conjunction with training, have noted the concept of experience. Kjell Rudestam calls the training form"the core of the training experience, and in some cases the only successful method of training and change of the person". He notes that " by observing the interactions taking place in the group, each participant can identify with others and use the established emotional connection in assessing their own feelings and behavior. All experiences and the flow of experience generated in the group allow each participant to analyse and re-evaluate many of his or her limiting attitudes and beliefs. Also during the training, participants can model and try out different skills that they can later transfer into normal life."2

Victor Kagan describes the training as a very special form of learning, based not on declarative, but real knowledge and giving the opportunity to survive on their own experience what the lecture says at all. He notes that " declarative knowledge about the dangers of drinking or Smoking, observance of the ten commandments, etc., can change little in this world in people's lives. Its logically complete form — bursaries, which Ambroise paré, famously labeled "the dust, shake of the books in the empty skull"3. Real knowledge may know nothing about the ten commandments, but it governs the behavior of a person in strict accordance with them. Real knowledge is "knowledge" of experience, not information.

Also, psychological training allows you to work with the individual, affecting the underlying internal structures, difficult to correct by other methods. At the same time, the good work of an experienced leader in personality-oriented psychological training is not so much in the development of the individual as in its "awakening" and activation. You can't change a person. A person changes himself, somehow reacting to situations and feeling his own success or failure in them. You can at this point be with him, to create the appropriate conditions and help him.

Psychological training does not just allow you to develop and analyze new experience, it orients a person to "feel, your "I", gives you the opportunity to "touch" and partially realize what is usually hidden and secretly imposes its decisions." We know very little about feeling, most often we are taught to ignore or devalue it, although this feeling is more important than hearing or vision. And it does not matter how a person calls it for himself: intuition, subconscious or experience, especially since all this lies "in one box". James Buchenthal writes: "If a person is blind or almost blind from birth, the only way to tell him about the sense of vision is to use inaccurate analogies with hearing, touch, or other feelings."1 It is also difficult to explain what it means to feel. At this point, your eyes are telling you that the page in front of you is a text page, not a white rectangle with black icons on it. And you can directly understand every word and sentence with the meanings and meanings embedded in them. The inner feeling (feeling) can function just as naturally and give immediate awareness. It can say, for example, "I didn't like talking to that person," rather than reporting "raw" data from which one can only infer inferences like, "I noticed that I was experiencing physical anxiety... I guess I'm bored with talking to C..."etc. a Person knows what others need: to smile more often, to talk politely, etc., but sometimes he does not know what he really wants. Maybe it's the price of socialization. Often a person perceives himself only as a "vague idea on an uncertain background", and he has no choice but to reflect on the causes of his anxiety, especially if from childhood he was taught to listen to himself, understand himself and show his feelings. Personal development should include the restoration of the ability to have and perceive internal signals, to know what a person likes and what is not, what he wants at the moment, and what is undesirable, what is pleasant and what is not. A person who does not receive these signals from the inside, these voices of his true "I", is forced to look for external support for leadership. It manages itself by means of hours, rules, calendars, schedules, plans and instructions of other people.

A training group is not a place where problems are exchanged, it is a place where each participant can better understand and accept themselves. Psychological training opens a wide field for participants to engage in communication with themselves, with the decisive part of themselves, which in everyday life is often not seen or frankly ignored, the part of themselves, which is hidden behind external masks and roles. Masks in the form of external " I "are created to preserve and release the inner real" I " from the destructive effects of external reality. But often the source of human problems is that he rarely allows himself to be himself, lost behind external masks and finally forgets the way to himself. The constant maintenance of the external " I " requires large energy costs, exhausting and ruining the personality. Psychological training activates the desire of participants to self-knowledge and self-improvement, allows each of them to take personal responsibility for who he is, and gives them the opportunity to become "sculptors" of their own personality.