Педагогические течения в образовании и обучении

№92-1,

педагогические науки

В статье описывается педагогические течения влияющие на формирование и развитие личности в процессе обучения и воспитания с древнейших времен и до наших дней, о существовании противоположных взглядов на воспитание.

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Pedagogical science does not yet have a common view on how to raise children. From ancient times to the present day there are two diametrically opposed views on education:

  • the need to educate children in the fear and obedience;
  • the need to educate children with kindness and affection.

If life categorically rejected one of the approaches, it would have ceased to exist long ago. But that's the whole difficulty: in some cases, great benefit to society brings people educated in strict rules, which formed a harsh Outlook on life, people with stubborn characters and uncompromising views, in others — soft, kind, intelligent. Depending on the conditions in which people live, what policy States have to conduct, traditions of education are created. In those societies that have long led a quiet, well-fed life, dominated by humanistic tendencies of education.

And in those societies that are constantly fighting, dominated by rigid education, based on the authority of the senior, unquestioning obedience to the younger. In conditions of war, hunger, social conflicts, deprivation, maybe, I would like to raise children softer, but they will not be able to survive in these conditions. That is why the question of how to raise children is not so much a question of science as of life itself.

Authoritarian education — (from lat. Auctopias-influence, power) has a fairly convincing scientific justification. So the German teacher I. Herbert, put forward the position that the child from birth is inherent in the "wild agility", demanded that the education of rigor. Methods of education he considered a threat, supervision of children, orders and prohibitions. For children who violate the order, he recommended to introduce the school penalty logs. To a large extent, under his influence there was a practice of education, which included a system of prohibitions and punishments: children were left without lunch, put in a corner, placed in a punishment cell, recorded in a penalty book.

As an expression of protest against authoritarian upbringing there was a theory of liberal education put forward by Rousseau. He and his followers urged to respect the growing man in the child, not to constrain, but to stimulate the natural development of the child in the course of education. Nowadays, having received good results and gained numerous supporters all over the world, this theory has resulted in a powerful course of humanistic pedagogy.

Humanism (from lat. humanus-human, human) holistic concept of man as the highest value in life. The main position of this concept is the dignity of the individual, the recognition of her rights to freedom, happiness, development and manifestation of her abilities, the creation of appropriate favorable conditions (life, work, education, etc.). Humanism-a set of ideas and values that affirm the universal importance of human existence in General and in the individual in particular.

Humanistic pedagogy is a system of scientific theories, asserting the pupil as an active, conscious, equal participant of the educational process, developing in its capabilities. From the point of view of humanism, the ultimate goal of education is that each pupil could become an authorized subject of activity, knowledge and communication, free,Amateur personality.

Humanistic pedagogy focuses on the personality of Its distinctive features: the shift of priorities to the development of mental, physical, intellectual, moral and other spheres of personality instead of mastering the volume of information and the formation of a certain range of skills; focus on the formation of a free, independent thinking and acting personality, a citizen-humanist, able to make informed choices in a variety of educational and life situations.

Humanistic pedagogy requires:

  • human attitude to the pupil;
  • respect for his rights and freedoms;
  • presentation of feasible and reasonably formulated requirements to the pupil;
  • respect for the position of the pupil even when he refuses to fulfill the requirements;
  • respect for the right of the child to be himself / herself;
  • bringing to consciousness of the pupil of the specific purposes of his education;
  • non-violent formation of required qualities;
  • renunciation of corporal and other punishments humiliating the honour and dignity of the person;
  • recognition of the right of the individual to complete refusal to form those qualities that for any reason contradict his / her beliefs (humanitarian, religious, etc.).

The creators of humanistic pedagogical systems are known all over the world — M. Montessori, R. Steiner, S. Frenet, the directions Created by them are now often called pedagogics.

M. Montessori's pedagogy, for example, is based on the ideas of natural education. The initial condition-the activity of the child. The dominant methods of education should be its practical actions with didactic materials for various purposes. Individualization of education and upbringing and personal approach are of crucial importance.

The name of R. Steiner is associated with the so-called Waldorf pedagogy, which requires the education of the child, taking into account the peculiarities of its development. Therefore, the most important thing to know the individuality of the child, his thinking, character, will, memory, etc. On this basis, designed the methods and forms of individual education. The physical activity of the child, his emotions and thinking — head, heart and hands are United in an inseparable whole.

The pedagogical concept Of S. Frenet is very popular in the West. Its main features: mandatory consideration of age-related psychology, diversity of abilities and inclinations of children; purposeful stimulation of their intellectual and emotional activity; socially useful work at all stages of education; effective system of school self-government; education in the spirit of high moral and civic ideals.