Важность ролевых игр в формировании коммуникативной компетенции учащихся


филологические науки

В статье рассматриваются ролевые игры, их обязательные элементы и их важность для разговорных классов. Прием ролевой игры имеет определенное преимущество для учащихся: он развивает креативность, навыки критического мышления, навыки общения, а также навыки решения проблем и помогает вырабатывать различные формы поведения в проблемных ситуациях, прививая понимание и сопереживание другим людям.

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The main goal of teaching a foreign language is the formation of communicative competence. It is difficult not to agree that even in a native language, where knowledge of words and their stylistic features does not present difficulties, it is not always possible to achieve the desired effect. This is because in the lessons of both foreign and native language, all the oral statements of students represent speech which is such only in form, but in fact, has little likelihood to speech. Each of the types of speech activity, speaking or writing that the student creates, should be an independent and unique product. And in practice, most often we meet with a situation where the answers of students on the topic under study are as similar as twins.

In order to improve the situation the necessity arises to search for the skills with the help of which to build communication in such a way as to achieve the goal, to have different methods of receiving and transmitting information, both in oral and in written communication. The formation of communicative competence can not be carried out in isolation from speech functions, which determine both the communication strategy and the selection of language tools for solving communication problems.

The analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature [2] and the generalization of personal pedagogical experience make it possible to assert that active learning methods are effective when studying a foreign language, by which we understand the forms and methods that activate the intellectual and independent work of students, maintain attention and interest in the subject, and develop speech. They allow not only to improve the knowledge gained, but also to solve the problem of forming the experience of interaction between participants in the educational process.

One of the most effective ways to solve these problems is the role play.

In our work we present the role play as a practical lesson modeling various aspects of students' verbal activity, ensuring the use of their knowledge, improving their foreign language.

Role-playing game got its name due to the fact that each of its participants has to play the role of a certain character. Therefore, participation in a role-playing game is akin to an actor's craft. Students, albeit in elementary form, get acquainted with the technology of the theater.

Role-playing games have a number of features that distinguish them from all other types of intellectual and communicative games.

This is a very interesting creative potential. Each team member is the creator of his character, which can influence the development of the game in general and the actions of other characters. There is an increase in personal involvement with everything that happens. The student enters the situation, though not through his own "ego", but through the "ego" of the corresponding role and shows great interest in the character he is playing. In this case, every function, successfully found gesture, mute action, if it corresponds to the situation, is encouraged by the whole group.

A role-playing game can be used almost in the study of any topic, using the lexical and grammatical material of the curriculum. In role-playing games, scenes, and even small performances, trainees play out everyday situations that require the use of language skills. This may be the purchase of tickets at the subway box office or an attempt to find a way in an unfamiliar city. For more advanced learners group role play might involve a discussion of some political issue in which every learner is asked to perform a role of a politician presenting the views of a certain political party. The main thing is to find a logical solution to the task, using exclusively the vocabulary of a foreign language and, of course, non-verbal means of communication. With the help of such tasks, the teacher tries to bring the participants of the classes as close as possible to the conditions of real communication. Often, in the early stages of language learning, especially in children's groups, well-known fairy tales are successfully staged.

In addition, role play promotes the expansion of the associative base in the assimilation of linguistic material, since the educational situation is built on the type of theatrical plays, which presupposes a description of the situation, the character of the actors and the relations between them. Behind every line of thought is a piece of modeled reality.

Role-playing game is used to solve complex tasks of mastering a new, fixing a material, developing creative abilities, forming general educational skills, enabling students to understand and study the material from various positions.

At the heart of the educational role-playing game lie the game elements: the presence of roles, situations in which roles are realized, various game items.

However, unlike other games, including games of a learning character, the role-playing game has individual features inherent only in this type of educational work, without the presence of which the game can not be considered role-playing: simulation in the game close to real conditions, the presence of conflict situations, an obligatory joint activity of the participants in the game, fulfilling the roles provided for in the game.

The very nature of the role play determines its main goal — the development and enhancement of the language competence of students.

In preparing the role-playing game, the following stages should be distinguished:

  • definition of the problem, subject, content and educational goal of the game;
  • determining the theme of the game in accordance with the curriculum;
  • definition of the functions of its participants, the nature of interrelationship: for each participant a role repertoire, a list of duties, types of interaction with other participants in the game are stipulated;
  • preparation of the script of the game: it is necessary to design the activities of all participants in the game, describe the place and time, the location of the participants;
  • definition of the rules of the game: the rules of the game reflect the temporary regulation of the stages of the game and the standards of behavior of players;
  • the distribution of roles between the participants in the game: roles are distributed taking into account the level of knowledge, skills and abilities of owning a foreign language;
  • drafting instructions for the game organizer, referees, judges, participants in the game: the instructions should reflect such points as the organization of the game, training material, the selection and training of players, referees, judges, repertoire of speech and role behavior, rules of the game, evaluation criteriaж
  • development of criteria for evaluating the results of the game: indicators for assessing the game should be the absence or presence of errors, their nature, the presence of difficulties in speech actions, time indicators, the variability of decisions. It is mandatory to discuss the progress and results of the game.

Being a model of interpersonal communication, role-playing game calls for communication in a foreign language, providing personal, cognitive activity of schoolchildren. Role play can be regarded as the most accurate model of communication in a foreign language, as it is an imitation of reality in its most essential features, and in it, as it in life, speech and non-verbal behavior of partners are interwoven in a full extent.

Список литературы

  1. Appatova R.S. Educational role-playing game as a means of intensifying the teaching of group communication: Abstract of a dis. Candidate. Ped Sciences.-M., 1987.-197s.
  2. I.A. Zimnyaya Psychology of teaching foreign languages at school Moscow, 1991.