In any language there is a special layer of vocabulary consisting of eloquent expressions. This layer is called phraseology. In this article, we will try to give a brief description of the phenomenon in the English language, as phraseology, to understand how to better carry out such phrases and explain what is the role of such constructions in the language.
Speech is the main way of interaction . To convey the meaning of the topic of conversation, mood, attitude to certain circumstances, quotes are used that are appropriate in a particular situation, Proverbs and sayings, phraseological units. The use of figurative expressions distinguishes a widely thinking person who thinks outside the box and has a certain knowledge.
It is known that the term phraseology was proposed by Charles Balli, who studied French stylistics and considered phraseology as a part of this science (“Precis de stylistique” 1905). Academician V. Vinogradov gave the concept of phraseology in his book “Russian language” (1974). since that time, phraseological units have been studied in terms of their semantics, structure and complexity. Kunin (1970) wrote " a phraseological unit is a stable combination of words with fully or partially figurative meaning”
The term "idioms" was first introduced by The English linguist L. p. Smith. He wrote that the word idiom is used in the English language to refer to the French term idiotisme, namely: to refer to the grammatical structure of combinations characteristic of the English language, although very often the meaning of these combinations can not be explained from a grammatical and logical point of view.
Often, while translating phraseological units, difficulties arise, since phraseologism it is necessary to translate as an integral inseparable unit, but not as individual words. So, while using sustainable expressions there is no need to remove words, change their word order, replace or add words, in order not to lose true meaning.
Thus, phraseology in linguistics is a stable expression with independent significance is close to idiomatic. Phraseology is a special speech phrase, an invariable a figure of speech, which is not taken literally.
When learning a language, it is important to have knowledge of its phraseology, as the use of such phrases in speech enriches the language, makes it more aesthetic, makes it easier to read fiction and publicistic literature in a foreign language.
The field of phraseology in the different theoretical concepts are specified in different ways. Nevertheless, most researchers agree that phraseological units should be characterized by three important parameters: ambiguity, stability and idiomaticity. The first of these parameters can be considered the only relatively clear, although there are problems associated with the presence or absence in a particular language spelling tradition, the distinction between words and phrases, words and sentences in this morphological type of language, etc. The category of stability turns out to be much less definite, but the greatest questions are raised by the concept of idiomaticity. In the most General case, idiomaticity means a certain complication of the way of expressing the content-complication not in the sense of the maximum complication of language forms, but "concentration" of expression and complexity of understanding.
Thus, in the study of English as a foreign language phraseology is a special problem in the mastering the material, but on the other hand, after studying and understanding this section it is easier to understand the English language, Express your thoughts and avoid literal translations of sentences.
In the process of phraseology development the problem question is often considered: the interaction of phraseological unit with the word. Phraseology is the equivalent of a word, but on the other hand we can talk about the correlation of phraseological combinations and words, it is impossible to put an equal sign between the word and the phraseological unit with which it is identified. A significant feature of phraseology is its evaluation of the concept expressed by it, in turn, for the word evaluation is less significant. Thus, absolute identity between them is impossible. In addition, if we talk about the structure of words and phraseological units, the word is a combination of morphemes, and phraseologism is a combination of words. The word can be combined with other words, unlike the phraseologism, which is lexically stable and retains its constant composition.
Phraseological units are formed from free combinations of words, used in a figurative sense. Over time, such a nominative is erased and the expression is transformed into a stable construction. Thus, the degree of Erasure, nominative values for the components of the phraseological unit, it is possible to talk about classification.
According to the studies of professor A. V. Kunin a phraseological unit is a combination of potential words with a completely reinterpreted meaning and a combination of potential words with actual words with a partially reinterpreted meaning.
According to academician V. V. Vinogradov, all phraseological units are expressions in which the meaning of one element depends on the meaning of another. Professor N. N. Amosova insists that this term applies only to what it calls "sustainable contextual units", i.e. units in which it is impossible to replace none of the existing components, without having to change the value of not only unity, but also those elements that remain intact. Classification of phraseological phrases from the point of view of semantic stability of their components, according to V. V. Vinogradov, three types can be distinguished: phraseological combination, fusion, unity. Phraseological combinations are characterized by semantic decomposability, approximation to free combinations. The characteristics of this type of phraseological units is the possibility of free word rearrangement, replacement of one of the key lexical units included in the composition by a synonymous unit. For example, a pitched battle is a fierce battle, (synonymous replacement of a key lexical unit) phraseological unity-in this case there is a General figurative meaning, while preserving the semantic separateness of the components. For example, to paint the devil blacker than he is means to exaggerate, to throw dust into smb.'s eyes — to mislead someone. The characteristic features include a special combination of imagery, expressiveness, stability of the turnover, preservation of the semantics of individual components and the ability to combine with other phraseological phrases.
Phraseological units (from Greek. idios-own, inherent) or, in other words, idioms are stable combinations, can not be dissected, in which the value in combination does not depend on the value of individual lexical units that make up phraseology. For example, be at smb.'s beck and call — to be always ready and willing to do what someone wants. In the example it is necessary to note the fact that the concept of its imagery is impossible to reveal without knowledge of historical features. This type of phraseological units is quite difficult to translate into foreign languages, since in this case, the main meanings of the words that make up the phraseological units have been lost, and the main meaning for them has become figurative. Phraseological units may include archaisms (i.e. obsolete words, meanings of words, phrases and other units of language, displaced for some reason from active use by synonymous units), they are characterized by a special stability or impermeability of the structure of figure of speech, the impossibility of changing the places of lexical units that make up the ideomatic expression.
Accordingly, in order to make an adequate translation, it is necessary to know different types of translation: use descriptive translation, finding equivalents or analogues.
Summing up, we should talk about the enormity of the phenomenon of language, as phraseology. In modern English, as, in principle, and other languages, there is a huge number of phraseological phrases that enrich and make the language more vivid, original and emotional. So, English from the point of view of the presence in its extensive system of phraseological units and phraseological phrases is perhaps one of the richest. Phraseological units occupy a huge layer in its structure. All the events taking place in its history are reflected in the phraseology: political life, sports, cultural events, everyday life — this is just an incomplete list of topics reflected in the English phraseological units. Many become obsolete, but they are always replaced by new, lively, bright and witty. So, it is safe to say that the phraseological system of the English language every day will develop, enrich and acquire new shapes.