It is impossible to imagine the life of a modern person without the Internet and television, without radio and modern means of communication, with the help of which people quickly find out the latest and most relevant news and can inform each other about certain events in a matter of seconds. In connection with the rapid development of the modern media sphere, the Internet, for example, has gained such popularity that today it is not only a means of communication and information transmission, but also a means of manipulating public consciousness.
Thus, the revolution that took place in Egypt in 2011 was nicknamed the "facebook revolution". It was thanks to the competent propaganda work on social networks in Cairo and other cities of Egypt that street demonstrations began, which resulted in the resignation of the country's President Hosni Mubarak. It becomes obvious that today the mass media (hence, the products of the mass media — media texts) are acquiring great importance in the life of society. Thus, according to the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann, today reality is constructed precisely by the media, and almost everything that we know about the world we get from the media. Thus, the media act both as an instrument of power, and as a tool for the implementation of information diktat, and as a way of cognitive processing of society and the individual in order to form a special picture of the world. All the information that is distributed on the Internet every minute, is published weekly in newspapers, is daily on TV channels and radio stations, is a single media space, since the addressee of information is precisely the mass audience. The process of text transmission is considered in this case as a communicative process
All the information that is distributed on the Internet every minute, is published weekly in newspapers, is daily on TV channels and radio stations, is a single media space, since the addressee of information is precisely the mass audience. The process of text transmission is considered in this case as a communicative process According to E.A. Morozkina: "Interpretation of a text ... is the disclosure of its meaning or meanings expressed in the totality of linguistic signs". The so-called fourth information revolution took place in the world at the end of the 20th century, when the classic printed text was replaced by new types of texts, thanks to which it became possible to promptly inform people using new technologies: photos, graphics, tables, video, sound. In the 1990s. in the English-language scientific literature, the term "media text" appeared, which literally immediately became widespread in national media discourses and international academic circles. Russian scientist G. Ya. Solganik gives the media text the following definition: this is a type of text belonging to the mass media, characterized by a special type of author (the fundamental coincidence of the producer of speech and its subject), a specific text modality (open speech, diverse manifestation of the author's self), designed for a mass audience ”. In other words, a media text is a text of any media type and genre, thanks to which speech communication in the field of mass communications is carried out. It follows from this that the media text expresses the more general essence of such concepts of mass communication as journalistic text, journalistic text, advertising text, television text, Internet text, radio broadcast, special reportage. Today, media text has acquired the status of a basic category in media linguistics, media stylistics, media culture, media education(T.G. Dobrosklonskaya, G. Ya. Solganik, A.V. Fedorova and others). From the point of view of sociolinguistics and functional stylistics, media texts were studied by such scholars as A. Bell, T. van Dijk, M. Montgomery, N. Feyerklough, R. Fowler. Note that a significant contribution to the formation and development of the theory of media text was made by Russian scientists, such as T.G. Dobrolonskaya, A.A.Leontyev. A feature of the media text is that it integrates various semiotic codes (verbal, non-verbal) into a single communicative whole. For example, even traditional newspaper publications today use photographs, tables, and graphic and type design. G. Ya. Writes about this in his research. Zasursky: “Today, media text is in a sense more than text. This is the graphics, which are used to make the text more versatile and more accurate, this is its sound embodiment, and its connection with the object of consideration in question. The media text acquires well-known universal features. The peculiarity of the media text is that it can be included in different media structures ”. The scientist attaches particular importance to the ability of verbal sound, visual and multi-layered media text, the energy of which increases dramatically in conditions of convergence. Note that the main categories of media text are media content (creation of text using media such as radio, television, the Internet, print publications), mass character (both when creating and when consumed), integrativity or polycode (combining various semiotic codes into a single communicative whole).
As mentioned earlier, the media text is not only the fruit of the creative work of journalism. This concept unites the materials of all modern mass media: reportage, television plot, article, radio broadcast. Nevertheless, there are three major areas of media text: journalism, PR and advertising. Needless to say, both PR managers and journalists are proficient in all the basic textual techniques necessary to promote their material on the media market. So, for example, theoretically, a pr-manager can prepare an advertising text, disguising it as a journalistic one, for the purpose of free placement in a newspaper or magazine.
In addition, PR employees of various organizations and government agencies prepare official information for journalists. Obviously, the information should be prepared in the form in which it is necessary for the correspondents. As for journalists, they are also obliged to know all the laws and fundamentals of the work of PR and advertising, since they repeatedly encounter them in their activities. Yu.V. Rozhdestvensky noted that the peculiarity of a media product is associated with a change in the status of a classical work and is determined by the external conditions of its existence. So, the specificity of a media text is determined by the external conditions of its existence, which include:
- the special type and nature of information broadcast by the mass media;
- disposability, non-reproducibility of information;
- collective production of media text;
- the mediation of communication and the special nature of feedback;
- the importance of technical means through which the message is broadcast;
- an economic factor that determines the ideology of the publication, affecting its content and technological implementation.
Indeed, the mass media are characterized by a number of features that influence the linguistic properties of the text. Thus, print media (newspapers and magazines) imply text with graphic design and illustrations. Radio text is distinguished by voice characteristics and sound accompaniment, while television text enhances the verbal and auditory component with video. In this case, it should be noted that in recent years such a concept as "publication format" has appeared.
In other words, this is a number of parameters, based on which preference is given to the choice of this or that information, the design and presentation of the information itself. As for the irreproducibility of media texts, today information really becomes outdated within a few hours. It is perceived once, and when the next issue of a newspaper or magazine is published, it will no longer be relevant. Radio and television are in fact the most efficient sources of information, in which news is aired every hour, and information is posted on the Internet 24 hours a day.
At the moment, there is no generally accepted classification of media texts. Nevertheless, they can be classified on the basis of the classical communication model proposed by the American political scientist G. Lasswell: who (author) — what is reported (text) — through which channel (distribution channel) — to whom (addressee) — with what effect.
T.G. Dobrosklonskaya also offers a system of parameters, taking into account which, it is possible to draw up an objective classification of media texts affecting both technological and linguistic features:
- by the method of text production (author's and collegiate);
- by institutional type of text (journalistic text, advertising text, PR-text);
- by the form of creating a media text;
- through the distribution channel (print, radio and television, Internet);
- by functional-genre type of text (news, interviews, advertising);
- by thematic dominant (economy, sports, culture).
- form of reproduction (oral, written);
Media texts can also be typologized according to topics regularly covered by the media: politics, sports, culture, religion. However, this classification is not so much universal as nationally specific. So, for example, in Russia criminal events and various incidents are more often covered, while in England — the life of the royal family, in India, Nepal, Iran — the religious life of the country, and in the USA, Pakistan and Afghanistan — military operations. Moreover, although all media texts are publicly available, in reality each media product is addressed to a very specific audience (children, youth, adults, bankers, journalists, car enthusiasts, Muslims, Hare Krishnas). For example, the “Sports Thursday” heading in the “Molodezhnaya Gazeta” is designed for a very specific target audience — young people. Definitely this section will not be of interest to programmers, designers or religious leaders. From this we can conclude that today the editorial policy of a particular media outlet is being adjusted depending on the interests of the consumer. Simply put, each publication works for its own audience, since this approach allows for commercial success.
Summing up, it can be noted that today there is a so-called inversion of the communicative roles in the relationship between the addressee and the addressee, and the distance between them is decreasing. “Mass media is gone. The mass media have ceased to be mass media (rather, they have become the means of narrow, and in the future — personal information) — due to the narrow specialization of the media, on the one hand, or due to the dispersion of target audiences by niches ".