The range of activities covered by the concept of translation is very wide. Translation from one language into another poems, scientific books from various artistic fields of knowledge, diplomatic documents, business papers, articles of politicians and speeches of speakers, newspaper materials, conversations of people speaking different languages and forced to resort to the help of an intermediary, an interpreter. For all types of translation work, there are two provisions:
- The purpose of the translation is to acquaint the reader with the listener, who does not know the language of the original, as closely as possible with the given text (or the content of oral speech);
- To translate means to express exactly and completely by means of one language that which has already been expressed by means of another language in the indissoluble unity of content and form. The role of language in translation, which it always plays in the life of society, here, too, acts as the most important means of human communication.
For the practice of translation, this implies a specific conclusion about the need for such an expression of the original thought in translation, which would convey it to the reader with all the clarity and completeness inherent in its expression in the original. Hence the need for the translation to comply with the national language norm, This is the condition for the clarity of the translation, its accessibility to the reader.
The content of the translated original is directly and inextricably linked with the natural matter of the language in which it was created. For a reader for whom another language is his native language and who is not fluent enough in the original language, but can still read it, everyone went, all the images evoked by the original inevitably switch into the plane of his native language. The process of translation, no matter how quickly it is performed in separate, especially favorable or just easy cases, inevitably falls into two moments. To translate, one must first of all understand, clearly understand, interpret what is being translated to oneself (with the help of linguistic images, i.e. Already with elements of translation).
Further, in order to translate, you need to find, select the appropriate means of expression in the language into which the translation is made (words, phrases, grammatical forms). Any interpretation of the original, right or wrong, and the attitude of the translator towards it, positive or negative, results — in the course of translation — the selection of linguistic means from the composition of the common language.
The history of translation knows a number of cases when the original is rethought by the translator or even deliberately distorted, falsified (this applies mainly to fiction and general political literature).
In practice, such a rethinking, and even more so — a distortion of the original, most often affecting its entire uniform structure, was manifested in the selection of those, and no other specific linguistic means (meanings of words, forms, their grammatical connection, etc.)… This selection of linguistic means reveals the attitude of the translator, first of all, to the content of the translated.
Under no circumstances can a translator working consciously be indifferent to the choice of language means. The seed task — to objectively express the original — causes the desire to select the appropriate means of the native language, interest in them from the point of view of the correct interpretation of the original.
The task of translation is not to weaken anything, not to smooth out, not to embellish anything. The prerequisite for solving this problem is the correct interpretation of the translated text; the condition for its implementation is the correct choice of linguistic means.
From all that has been said, it is clear how complex the translatable activity is, which consists in the constant search for linguistic means for expressing that unity of content and form, which the original represents, and in the choice between several transmission possibilities. This search and this choice are creative in any case.
Translation has always played and now plays a huge role as a powerful means of cultural, political and economic communication between peoples.
Translation, as well as most of the phenomena in nature and in the life and activities of society, is a multifaceted object of study. Translation issues can be considered from various points of view — a cultural historian, literary, linguistic, psychological (since the work of a translator presupposes certain processes occurring in the field of mental activity. The unity of the object-translation itself, there is constantly a need to pay attention to a certain side of the object of study, to a greater or lesser degree of abstraction from the rest.
Since translation always deals with the language, it always means working on the language, to the extent that translation certainly requires studying in a linguistic context in connection with the question of the nature of the relationship between the two languages and their stylistic means.
The study of translation, even in the literary plane, is constantly faced with the need to consider linguistic phenomena, analyze and evaluate the linguistic means used by translators. The role of a translator and literature of a particular country, rethinking or distortion of the original in translation — all this is also associated with the use of certain linguistic means. The psychology of translation also deals with the relationship of language, to thinking, with linguistic images. Thus, the study of translation in terms of history.
The linguistic aspect in the study of translation affects its very basis — the language, outside of which no translation functions are feasible.
Translation always deals with a system of linguistic means, selected and organized in a certain way in the original and requiring: the same selection and organization of the means of the language into which the original is translated.
The practical task of translation is the search for correlative and parallel ways of expressing the content of the original — from the composition of the means of a given language; translation always deals with different styles of the national language of the whole people, it must always take into account their relationship and inter-penetration, as well as the forms of the relationship of the means of expression to the expressed content.
The essence of translation is one of the central issues of translation studies. On how the essence of translation is understood, the fundamental solution of such important problems for the theory of translation as translatability, equivalence, adequacy, etc. The answer to questions about what translation is, what are its most characteristic and essential features, where is the line between translation and complex types of speech activity, what are its linguistic and extra-linguistic aspects, what place does it lower among other types of interlingual communications.