In newspaper titles, terms like personification, epithet, metaphor, antithesis, allusion, phraseological units, comparison, irony, interjections, and gradation are all utilized. Authors can use these techniques to create a unique image of the headline, which has a lot of practical value. A title that combines stylistic approaches with expressive syntactical construction and/or punctuation draws the audience's attention, produces curiosity, and has a pragmatic effect on the addressee.
Personification. This method entails ascribing the qualities of a live entity to a non-living object. Newspaper headlines with personification features allow the creator to deliver their message in a succinct and laconic manner while also drawing attention to their content. e.g Russia isn’t looking good. But it's certainly making me happy [The Times, 3 November2015].
Epithet. The term epithet is used to describe activities or communicate the author's opinion about the situation or subject under discussion. It's worth noting that an epithet is usually used with the topic it describes. When writers wish to express their own feelings about something mentioned in the headline, they utilize a stylistic element known as an epithet. e.g: "Bulldog," says the narrator, "Mike is the guy for the job." («Evening Standard», July 29, 1997); "The Not-so-Iron Lady" («Hindustan Times», March 27, 1997);
Metaphor. Metaphor is a stylistic device that paints a clear picture in the minds of readers of what will be covered in the text. «Can't say anything right now since it's soap time» («Sunday Mirror», March 16, 1997), «Stowing away on a ship of fools», «Time is money» («Evening Standard», May 30, 1997).
Phraseological units. Phraseological units are included as prominent features in newspaper headlines to draw the audience's attention since they are exceedingly common combinations with a high degree of stability and persistence.
- Ready for war? At the G20 summit, Barack Obama and Vladimir Putin are expected to spar over Syria.
The phraseological unit «lock horns with someone» (to get into an argument with someone) depicts the summit's hostile mood, the difficulty of addressing difficulties, and the potential for a confrontation between Russian and US leaders.
- Russians tighten their belts for a great cause.
In this title, the author uses the phraseology «to tighten one's belt» (to manage to spend less money; to use less of something) to highlight the article's primary theme, delivering a vivid portrayal of Russians' resistance in times of economic difficulty.
Irony. Irony can express a wide range of the addressee's feelings and emotions (both positive and negative) without being overly definitive or unambiguous. Irony is frequently emphasized in print media headlines by contrasting the attributes of the subjects. Ironic headlines have a beneficial impression on the recipient because of their expressive image and emotional substance.
- Putin bombs and the west blinks.
Repetition. Repetition is the simple repeating of a word, within a sentence or a poetical line, with no particular placement of the words, in order to emphasize. This is such a popular literary trick that it is rarely acknowledged as a figure of speech. Formal repetition, according to Leech and Short is "repeated use of an expression (morpheme, lexical item, proper name, phrase, etc.) that has already occurred in the context."
Repetition is a stylistic device that involves repeating the same word or phrase in order to increase the expressiveness of the utterance.he use of repetition enables writers to emphasize more deeply their own statements in the headlines. «Going round and roundin magic circles» («Evening Standard», May 30, 1997) — in this example, the repetition of the word «round» reflects the manner of dancing in Tchaikovsky's «Swan Lake», which was staged in London. Odile dances in a circle, the swans are surrounded by Odette, i.e. all «Swan Lake» is spinning in «magic circles».
The most typical usage of stylistic devices has been illustrated above. However, it does not cover the great variety in headline structures. Stylistic devices are used for the purpose to impress the reader. The headlines become more fun and attractive. The factor of surprise is being created and the reader is interested in reading of the whole article. Nevertheless, it should be mentioned that stylistic means sometimes create the uncertainty of meaning as firstly the connotation of those devices has to be revealed.
As a result of the previous, we may conclude that a title allows one to have the impression of the title. The importance of titles cannot be overstated. Style, phonetics, and syntactical devices are commonly used in English newspaper headlines. They aid writers in attracting readers' attention, creating anticipation, expectation, or apathy in their work. A newspaper article's headline is more expressive than imaginative. The reason for this lies in the peculiarities of the functional style in which it is used.