Как избежать плагиата?

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Аннотация

Статья посвящена важности предотвращения плагиата в образование. Также рассматривается ряд вопросов плагиата студенческого реферата в процессе написания. Решающая роль перефразирования в сочинениях, помогающих избежать плагиата.

Ключевые слова

ПЕРЕФРАЗИРОВАТЬ, НАВЛЕКАТЬ, ЗАМЕЧАТЬ, СОВЕТ, ОЗНАКОМИТЬ, КОПИЯ, ИДЕЯ, ПЛАГИАТ, РЕЗЮМИРОВАТЬ, УМЫШЛЕННО, НЕУМЫШЛЕННО

Текст научной работы

Introduction

Plagiarism is a stealing a person's thoughts, structures, sentences without as it should be acknowledging the supply to advantage in a placing in which originality is expected. The purpose plagiarism is inaccurate isn't always due to the fact you draw on different works, however as a substitute due to the fact you don’t claim your sources. It could be very clean manner to duplicate different works due to the fact you do now no longer need to make yourself do something. Here we've got come to be acquainted the 3 guidelines to keep away from plagiarism.

Three recommendations as opposed the plagiarism:

  1. Discern different people’s thoughts out of your personal;
  2. Reference the unique supply;
  3. Define the unique supply in order that it may be traced back.

Scientific writing may be a cognitively traumatic and onerous process, for it concurrently needs outstanding ranges of readability and conciseness, factors that frequently conflict with every different.

Judging through a number of the reader statement acting in diverse rising outlets, which includes Pub Peer and Retraction Watch, those forms of oversights arise notably often with inside the sciences, especially whilst handling arguable subjects or imaginations. This potential itself represents growth, crucial for shifting to later tiers. Responsible technological knows how and scholarship entail the very best diploma of objectivity in reporting the consequences of our studies. Most authors will make each attempt to explain their observations without exaggerating the significance of the findings or overstating their conclusions, every now and then with the help of the magazine referees. However, lapses in objectivity whilst supplying studies to a preferred target and market had been mentioned in magazine articles and, in particular in institutional press releases that forty are later utilized by technological knows how writers to explain the cutting-edge studying findings.

Taking over the thoughts, methods, or written phrases of every other, without acknowledgment and with the aim that they be taken because the paintings of the deceiver.

As the above citation shows, plagiarism has been historically described because the taking of phrases, images, processes, shape and layout factors, thoughts, etc. of others and imparting them as one’s very own. It is frequently related to terms including kidnapping of phrases, kidnapping of thoughts, fraud, and literary theft. Plagiarism can occur itself in a four style of methods and isn't simply restricted to pupil papers or posted articles or books. For instance, don't forget a scientist who makes a presentation at a convention and discusses at period a concept or idea that had already been proposed with the aid of using a person else but now no longer taken into consideration not unusual place knowledge. During his presentation, he fails to absolutely well known the unique supply of the concept and, consequently, misleads the target market into believing that he become the originator of that concept. This, too, may also represent an example of plagiarism. The truth is that plagiarism manifests itself in a number of conditions and the subsequent examples are only a small pattern of the various methods where in it takes place and of the sorts of results that could comply with as a result.

  • A historian resigns from the Pulitzer board after allegations that she had appropriated textual content from different re-assets in one in every of her books;
  • An author for a newspaper who turned into observed to have plagiarized cloth for a number of his articles ended up resigning his role;
  • A biochemist resigns from a prestigious health facility after accusations that an e-e book he wrote contained appropriated quantities of textual content from a National Academy of Sciences report;
  • A well-known musician is observed responsible of subconscious plagiarism through consisting of factors of every other musical group’s formerly recorded music in one in all his new songs which then will become a hit. The musician is pressured to pay repayment for the infraction;
  • A university president is compelled to renounce after allegations that he did not characteristic the supply of cloth that turned into a part of a university convocation speech;
  • A U.S. Senator has his Master’s diploma rescinded after findings of plagiarism in certainly considered one among this educational papers; he withdraws from the Senate race;
  • An schooling minister resigns her authorities role after a college rescinds her doctoral diploma for plagiarism;
  • A psychologist has his doctoral diploma rescinded after the college unearths that quantities of his doctoral dissertation were plagiarized.

In sum, plagiarism may be a completely severe shape of moral misconduct. For this reason, the idea of plagiarism is universally addressed in all scholarly, artistic, and clinical disciplines. In the arts and the sciences, for instance, a plethora of writing publications for college kids and experts exist to offer steerage to authors on discipline-unique techniques for acknowledging the contributions of others. While coaching on right attribution, a key idea in averting plagiarism, is sort of usually supplied, insurance of this critical subject matter frequently fails to head past the maximum not unusual place forms: plagiarism of thoughts and plagiarism of textual content. Plagiarism of thoughts appropriating a person else’s concept in entire or in part, or with superficial changes without giving credit score to its originator. In the sciences, as in maximum different scholarly endeavors, moral writing needs that any thoughts, data, and conclusions borrowed from others and used as the muse of one’s very own contributions to the literature, be nicely recounted.

Forms of plagiarism

Word-for-phrase plagiarism

Copying an entire textual content or part of a textual content written through a person else without putting forward its supply and pretending that it's far your personal paintings constitutes the maximum severe shape of plagiarism. Plagiarism additionally takes place while the textual content is referenced, however it's far uncertain what's and isn’t your personal concept.

Pay attention: If we reproduction numerous paragraphs, positioned them into our textual content without citation marks and insert a connection with the quite of the copied section, the quantity of what we reproduced is doubtful. Mark any citations with citation marks, use italics, or differentiate them in some other typographic style.

If we use a supply in numerous locations, the reference has to be covered in all locations in which we employ the textual content.

Mosaic plagiarism

These consequences from compiling numerous brief segments of textual content from one-of-a-kind re-assets, without pointing out a reference for every reproduced segment.

Pay attention: Always country all of your re-assets, despite the fact that you’re only bringing up a part of a sentence. It does now no longer suffice to listing all re-assets in the bibliography. We have to additionally seek advice from every supply in the textual content.

Paraphrase or translation without supply

The unique concept is what counts. Even if we describe it in our personal words that is, we paraphrase — or we translate it from a unique language, it isn't always our personal concept. Accordingly, we have to reference it.

Pay attention: The reality that your paintings and the authentic paintings is not now no longer textually same will probable suggest that the modern-day a plagiarism software program will now no longer discover the transgression. That, however, does now no longer extradite the truth which you used an concept from every other paintings and, as such, you have to reference it

Self-plagiarism

When we reuse our very own paintings that have already been posted or that we have got already submitted for a one-of-a-kind direction, and we do not reference it, that constitutes self-plagiarism. That is due to the fact we again and again advantage a bonus from the equal paintings or its part, such as an academic grade or medical recognition.

Pay attention: A seminar paper or a part of a paper which we've already submitted in a single route cannot be submitted once more as new in some other direction.

Naturally, you're allowed to utilize your personal paintings, however you need to nation that the textual content has already been posted or submitted elsewhere, and then reference it. It’s an amazing concept to speak about this together along with your manager in advance.

Incorrect citations and supply referencing

We also can devote plagiarism unintentionally. This would possibly happen, for example, while we overlook to consult a supply or while we go away out citation marks and it is doubtful which thoughts are the author’s very own and that are copied.

Pay attention: Even one reference deleted through mistake would possibly in shape the definition of plagiarism. This will now no longer typically cause a disciplinary procedure, not like with inside the instances of deliberately copied and unreferenced passages or references to non-current re-assets. To be sure, take a look at all of your references and bibliography earlier than you submit and layout with them in step with the specified referencing style.

Undeclared contribution

Collective paintings and co-authorship are not unusual place in educational circles, and there may be not anything incorrect with this, whilst it's miles permitted. It is crucial to mention when you have now no longer labored by myself on a task. We additionally have to actually distinguish which element is the end result of teamwork, which component become contributed with the aid of using different authors and that's our personal work.

Tip: Group tasks may be treated the identical manner as journal contributions. They constantly kingdom who contributed and in what ways -who introduced the primary concept, who performed the literature review, who processed data, who wrote up the frame of the article. This manner, we may have a clean concept approximately the contribution of every person author

Avoiding plagiarism

Techniques for Avoiding Plagiarism In instructional writing you should display which you have study and understood the encouraged books and some other applicable reading. The thoughts are owned through the writer. Copying in a manner that makes the thoughts seem like your personal is plagiarism. There are matters you could do to keep away from being accused of plagiarism, they're paraphrasing and following the guidelines.

Paraphrasing (re-writing for your personal phrases) Books and articles have to be used as a supply of facts from that you write, for your personal phrases, what you trust are the essential factors. You have to well- known your re-assets of data. In the elements of your writing that rely upon supply texts for data, paraphrasing ought to be used the most. As nicely as mentioning the essential factors you ought to additionally give an explanation for the factors, examine and comparison the perspectives of various authors you've got examine, and upload your personal feedback on the subject below discussion.

By doing these items you pass past simply repeating the statistics that you have found. This is what makes an awesome undertaking. Repeating records indicates most effective that the records have been examined and probable memorized. The addition of explanations, comparisons, contrasts and feedback is higher as it indicates that the statistics has been examine, analyzed and understood. An instructor who's marking a project is certain to provide better marks for this type of show of expertise and understanding.

Follow the guidelines while copying without delay from a textual content. There are instances while you may quote without delay out of your supply material. However, you ought to comply with sure policies.

  • Direct copying of a part of a passage (e.g. an entire paragraph) ought to arise not often on your writing and as soon as copied must now no longer constitute a huge percentage of your personal textual content. It has to be simply outstanding from the relaxation of your textual content in a manner which makes it cleans that it is far a citation;
  • Very brief elements of a supply textual content (e.g. a part of a sentence) may be copied whilst needed. However, the phrases which you have copied ought to be right now apparent in your reader. You have to additionally take care now no longer to alternate any of the phrases;
  • The genuine supply of your citation ought to be acknowledged. This has to be finished in a manner which suggests certainly how plenty is copied (see below). Examples of while you would possibly need to duplicate without delay are;
  • While the precise phrases are applicable for your argument/discussion · whilst something is expressed in a manner that is unique while re-writing might purpose a lack of effect.

Paraphrasing and summarizing

Scholarly writing, which includes clinical writing, regularly includes paraphrasing and summarizing others’ work. For example, with inside the advent of a conventional IMRAD paper it's miles standard to offer a short and concise evaluation of the pertinent literature.

Such a evaluation is finished via way of means of the cogent synthesis of applicable theoretical and empirical research that shape the history and reason for the hypotheses being examined or for the principle thesis of the paper being written.

Guideline 1

When we summarize others’ work, we use our very own phrases to condense and bring others’ contributions in a shorter model of the unique.

At different times, and for a lot of reasons, we may also want to restate in element and in our very own phrases a sure part of any other creator’s writing. In this case, we should rely upon the method of paraphrasing. Unlike a summary, which ends up in a drastically shorter textual product, a paraphrase generally effects in writing of approximately equal textual period because the unique, however, of course, with one-of-a-kind phrases and sentence structure. Whether paraphrasing or summarizing others’ work, we should continually offer right credit.

Guideline 2

When paraphrasing others’ work, now no longer simplest should we use our personal phrases, however we should additionally use our very own syntactical structure. Guideline 3: Whether we're paraphrasing or summarizing we ought to usually perceive the supply of our information.

Paraphrasing and plagiarism: what the writing courses say

Although absolutely all expert and pupil writing publications, which include the ones with inside the sciences, offer particular commands at the right use of citation marks, references, etc., a few fail to provide precise info on right paraphrasing. With a few exceptions, writing courses that offer commands for correct paraphrasing and for averting plagiarism have a tendency to join a »conservative» method to paraphrasing. That is, those publications frequently propose that once paraphrasing, a writer ought to significantly alter the authentic fabric.

Guideline 3

Consider the subsequent examples of paraphrasing guidelines:

«Don’t plagiarize. Express your personal mind for your personal phrases…. Note, too, that sincerely converting some phrases right here and there, or converting the order of some phrases in a sentence or paragraph, continues to be plagiarism. Plagiarism is one of the maximum severe crimes in academia.»

«You paraphrase as it should be while you constitute a concept for your personal phrases extra really and pointedly than the supply does. But readers will assume which you plagiarize if they are able to fit your phrases and phraseology with the ones of your supply.»

Guideline 4

When paraphrasing and/or summarizing others’ paintings we ought to make certain that we're reproducing the precise which means of the alternative author’s thoughts or data and that we're doing so the usage of our personal phrases and sentence shape.

Examples of paraphrasing: accurate and bad.

The moral creator takes splendid care to insure that any paraphrased textual content is adequately changed which will be judged as new writing. Let’s recall numerous paraphrased variations of the subsequent cloth at the electrochemical houses of neurons. In acknowledging the supply, we can use the footnote approach usually used with inside the biomedical sciences. The real reference might seem with inside the reference segment of the paper.

«Because the intracellular attention of potassium ions is particularly excessive, potassium ions generally tend to diffuse out of the mobile. This motion is pushed via way of means of the attention gradient for potassium ions.

However, the molecular membrane is notably greater permeable to potassium ions than to sodium ions. As an end result, potassium ions diffuse out of the molecular quicker than sodium ions input the cytoplasm. The molecular consequently studies an internet lack of high-quality charges, and as an end result the indoors of the molecular membrane carries an extra of terrible charges, generally from negatively charged proteins.»

Conclusion

Plagiarism must be avoided at all costs. It's critical to acknowledge and respect other people's efforts and information. It demonstrates that you value their effort and, more significantly, that you give credit where credit is due. You are not tricking the individual who reads it into thinking it is your work.

From the standpoint of what we've covered so far concerning plagiarism, it's a proven truth that plagiarism is most prevalent in academia. It is a growing allure for students and an unavoidable complexity for professors in dealing with the problem. The academic community places a high priority on acknowledging the contributions of others to knowledge. As a result, if someone is detected plagiarizing, the consequences could be severe.

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Список литературы

  1. Miguel Roig "A guide to ethical writing". New York 2003. https://ori.hhs.gov
  2. P. Černikovsky "How to avoid plagiarism". Student handbook 2020. https://karolinum.cz
  3. David Gardner "Plagiarism and how to avoid it" 1999. https://www.researchgate.net

Цитировать

Еденбаева, Х.С. Как избежать плагиата? / Х.С. Еденбаева. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 132. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/19143 (дата обращения: 23.05.2022).

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