Загрязнение. Что мы можем сделать против этого?

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Аннотация

В статье речь идет о главной проблеме современного мира – причинении вреда природе, окружающей среде, которое называется загрязнением. Ниже обсуждались вред загрязнения и действия, которые люди могут предпринять против него, чтобы спасти природу.

Ключевые слова

ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВА, БОЛЕЗНИ, ШУМОВОЕ ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИЕ, ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИЕ ПОЧВЫ, ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИЕ ВОДЫ, ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИЕ ВОЗДУХА, ЭКОСИСТЕМА, ЗАГРЯЗНИТЕЛИ, ПОВТОРНОЕ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ, ПЕРЕРАБОТКА

Текст научной работы

Introduction

The introduction of dangerous items into the ecosystem is referred to as pollution. Pollutants are the term for these dangerous compounds. Pollutants can come from the environment, such as volcanic ash. They can also be caused by human activities, such as garbage or factory runoff. Pollutants wreak havoc on the environment, including the air, water, and land.

Many items that are beneficial to individuals pollute the environment. Automobiles emit pollutants through their exhaust pipes. The air is polluted when coal is used to generate energy. Garbage and sewage are produced by industries and households, which can damage the land and water. Pesticides, which are chemical poisons used to eliminate weeds and insects, contaminate streams and endanger wildlife.

From single-celled microorganisms to blue whales, all living creatures rely on the Earth's supply of air and water. All forms of life are harmed when these resources are polluted.

Worldwide problem

Pollution is a worldwide issue. Despite the fact that metropolitan regions are typically more polluted than rural areas, pollution can migrate to isolated areas where no one lives. Pesticides and other pollutants, for example, have been discovered in the Antarctic ice sheet. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is a massive concentration of microscopic plastic particles in the center of the northern Pacific Ocean.

Pollution is carried by air and water currents. Marine pollutants are carried far and wide by ocean currents and migrating fish. Winds can pick up radioactive material that has been released accidently from a nuclear plant and disperse it all over the planet. The smoke from a manufacturing in one country spreads to another.

Types of pollution

There are various sorts of pollution, which are generated by either natural phenomena (such as forest fires) or man-made activity (like cars, factories, nuclear wastes, etc.) These are further divided into the forms of pollution listed below:

  • Air Pollution;
  • Water Pollution;
  • Soil Pollution;
  • Noise Pollution.

Other types of pollution exist, such as light pollution, thermal pollution, and radioactive pollution, in addition to these four. The latter is far less common than the others, yet it is the most lethal.

The release of harmful contaminants (chemicals, toxic gases, particles, biological molecules, and so on) into the earth's atmosphere is referred to as air pollution. These toxins are extremely harmful, and in certain situations, they can cause major health problems. The following are some of the factors that contribute to air pollution:

  1. Burning of fossil fuels;
  2. Operations in the mining industry;
  3. Gases emitted by industry and factories.

The consequences of air pollution differ depending on the type of pollutant. However, air pollution has a wide range of effects, including:

  1. Respiratory sickness and cardiovascular issues are more likely to occur;
  2. Skin disorders are more likely to occur;
  3. It's possible that it'll make you more susceptible to cancer;
  4. Warming of the planet;
  5. Rainfall that is acidic;
  6. Depletion of ozone;
  7. Risks to wildlife.

Water pollution.When harmful contaminants and particle matter are introduced into water bodies such as lakes, rivers, and seas, water pollution is said to occur. Human activities such as faulty sewage treatment and oil spills are common sources of these toxins. Even natural processes like eutrophication, on the other hand, can pollute water.

The following are some other prominent sources of water pollution:

  1. Dumping solid waste into bodies of water;
  2. Untreated industrial sewage is dumped into bodies of water;
  3. Wastes from humans and animals;
  4. Pesticides and fertilizers are found in agricultural runoff.

Water contamination has a significant impact on our ecosystem. Toxic chemicals can also bio accumulate in living things, and these toxins can migrate up the food chain, eventually reaching people.

Soil contamination, often known as soil pollution, is the degradation of land caused by the presence of chemicals or other man-made compounds in the soil. Xenobiotic compounds change the natural composition of soil and have a negative impact on it. These can have a significant direct or indirect impact on one's life. Any hazardous compounds in the soil, for example, will be absorbed by the plants. Because plants create in their surroundings, it is passed up the food chain. The effects of soil contamination are less visible than those of other types of pollution, but their consequences are significant.

The following are some of the most common causes of soil pollution:

  1. Industrial waste disposal that isn't up to snuff;
  2. Air pollution causes acid rain, which is generated by oil spills and mining activities;
  3. Agrochemicals and intensive farming (like fertilisers and pesticides);
  4. Accidents in the workplace.

Soil pollution has a wide range of consequences. When specific wastes, such as radioactive waste, are not well-contained, they become particularly hazardous. A well-documented example is the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, which has rendered a 2,600-square-kilometer area uninhabitable for thousands of years.

Noise pollution is defined as an excess of noise in the environment that disturbs the natural balance. Noise pollution is usually caused by humans, while natural disasters such as volcanoes can also cause it.

In general, any sound that exceeds 85 dB is deemed harmful. In addition, the length of time a person is exposed has an effect on their health. A average discussion has a decibel level of roughly 60, while a jet taking off has a decibel level of around 15o. As a result, noise pollution is more noticeable than other forms of pollution.

Noise pollution is caused by a number of factors, including:

  1. Heavy machineries, mills, factories, and other industrial noises;
  2. Noises from vehicles, planes, and other modes of transportation;
  3. Noises from construction;
  4. Social gatherings generate a lot of noise (loudspeakers, firecrackers, etc.);
  5. Noises from the household (such as mixers, TV, washing machines, etc.).

Due to extensive urbanization and manufacturing, noise pollution has become quite frequent. Noise pollution can have negative consequences such as:

  1. Hearing loss is a common problem;
  2. Tinnitus;
  3. Sleep disturbances;
  4. Hypertension is a condition in which the blood pressure (high BP);
  5. Issues with communication.

Ways to reduce pollution

  1. Making use of public transportation. Taking public transportation, which uses less gas and energy, is a sure way to contribute to less air pollution; even carpools help. Using public transportation can help you save money in addition to reducing the amount of fuel and gas released;
  2. When not in use, turn off the lights. Because the energy used by lights contributes to air pollution, reducing electricity consumption can help save energy. To aid the environment, use energy-saving fluorescent lighting;
  3. Reuse and recycle. The concept of recycling and reuse not only helps to conserve resources and use them wisely, but it also helps to reduce pollution emissions, which is good for the environment. In addition, recycled materials use less energy to manufacture;
  4. Avoid using plastic bags. Plastic items may be hazardous to the environment since they take a long time to degrade due to their oil-based composition. Instead, paper bags are a preferable option because they degrade quickly and are recyclable;
  5. Forest fires and smoking are being reduced. The collection of waste and setting it ablaze in dry seasons, or dry leaves igniting flames, is a major source of air pollution; also, smoking contributes to air pollution and deterioration of air quality, as well as harming one's health;
  6. Instead of using an air conditioner, use fans. The use of air conditioners consumes a lot of energy and produces a lot of heat, both of which are harmful to the environment. When compared to fans, air conditioners use a lot more power and energy to operate;
  7. When it comes to chimneys, use filters. The gas released by fireplaces in households and enterprises is particularly dangerous for air pollution and has a significant negative impact on air quality. If consumption cannot be reduced, filters should be used, as this will help to limit the effect of dangerous gases absorbed in the air;
  8. Stay away from crackers. Sadly, the usage of crackers at festivals and weddings is one of the primary causes of air pollution, resulting in a coating of haze that is exceedingly damaging to one's health. As a result, it is recommended that no crackers be used;
  9. Stay away from chemical-based goods. Paints and perfumes, for example, should be used less frequently or outside the house because they contain chemicals. Use of items with low chemical content and organic qualities could potentially be an option;
  10. Make afforestation a priority. Last but not least, make a concerted effort to establish and nurture as many trees as possible. The technique of planting trees has numerous environmental benefits and aids in the release of oxygen.

Conclusion

People and governments all across the world are working to reduce pollution. For example, recycling is getting more popular. Trash is processed through recycling so that its beneficial materials can be reused. Many forms of plastic, as well as glass and metal cans, can be melted and reused. Paper can be dismantled and recycled to make new paper.

Governments can tackle pollution by enacting legislation that restricts the amount and types of chemicals that manufacturers and agribusinesses can use. Coal-burning power stations' smoke can be filtered. People and businesses who unlawfully dump pollutants into the land, water, or air face multimillion-dollar penalties.

Environmental, political, and economic leadership are required to reduce pollution. Developed countries must seek to reduce and recycle their waste, while emerging countries must work to strengthen their economies without causing environmental damage. Developed and developing countries must collaborate to achieve a common aim of environmental protection for future generations.

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Давронова, М.А. Загрязнение. Что мы можем сделать против этого? / М.А. Давронова. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 132. — С. 199-200. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/19223 (дата обращения: 30.06.2022).

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