Проблемный вопрос грамматического рода арабского языка как иностранный язык и грамматические отличия по сравнению с английским

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Раздел: Филологические науки
Язык: Английский
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Исследования показывают, что использование мощной речи делает говорящего более авторитетным и заслуживающим доверия. В статье рассматривается проблема гендерной лингвистики в аспекте ее возникновения и становления, прежде всего в англо-арабской лингвистической литературе, обзор научной литературы, ее анализ и краткая характеристика.

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English belongs to Indo-European language family and Arabic belongs to Semitic language family. They come from different language family, but they have some similarities and differences in gender agreements. English language makes few gender distinctions between feminine and masculine. The connection between the biological category 'sex' and the grammatical category 'gender' is very close. For natural sex distinctions determine English gender distinctions. Gender also makes distinctions between animate and inanimate nouns. Moreover, there are common gender and collective gender. Many languages of the world have a grammatical gender system that divides all nouns into gendered categories. The gender assigned to a given noun requires gender agreement with associated items in the sentence, such as: determiners, adjectives, and demonstrative pronouns. Recently, an increase interest in the acquisition of grammatical gender by second language (L2) learners has been revealed. This paper investigated the acquisition of Arabic, a language that has a rich grammatical gender system, by speakers of a first language (L1) that does not have gender (English). Arabic demonstrative pronouns selected as the linguistic feature to be investigated. Due to the gender differentiations, Arabic has nearly ten demonstrative pronouns whereas English has four demonstrative pronouns. However, the Failed Functional Features (FFF)hypothesis predicts that English learners of Arabic cannot acquire these systems since they are not available in their L1.This article investigated the ability of English learners of Arabic in acquiring the Arabic demonstrative pronouns with their gender as accurate as native speakers of Arabic do. The research will deal, first, with gender and its kinds in English, and then gender and its kinds in Arabic. Then applied discussion of gender will be done in verses translated from Arabic into English. The last step, as a conclusion, will be a comparison between English and Arabic genders with references to their translation. The most obvious points in the conclusion show, first, that English gender is natural, whereas Arabic gender is grammatical. Second, gender in English is more relevant to pronouns, whereas gender in Arabic is relevant to nouns, pronouns, verbs, and adjectives. Third, gender is different from one language to another not only in English and Arabic, and that is because of culture-bound.

Grammatical gender is one of the earliest properties to be mastered in first language acquisition. When acquiring the gender system of their native language, children rely on the different types of gender cues that their language provide, formal (phonological and morphological), semantic (natural gender), and syntactic (agreement) cues. At the early stages of their language development, they seem to rely mostly on phonological and morphological cues and to a lesser extent on semantic and syntactic cues. As children grow older, however, their awareness of semantic and syntactic cues increases. This means that they begin to pay more attention to the meaning of the gendered nouns and the grammatical categories involved in the gender system of their language, such as articles, adjectives, and verbs. In second language acquisition, however, grammatical gender has proved to be particularly difficult to learn. Many studies show that most L2 learners, adults and children, have serious difficulties with this grammatical category, and that the problem persists even at advance levels. L2 learners experience difficulties with both the lexical and syntactic properties of the gender system. Assigning the correct gender to nouns as well as applying gender agreement are problematic for L2 learners.

The grammatical gender system in the Arabic language is a very rich and complex one. This complexity is evident in the many exceptions that the general rules of gender assignment display. Masculine nouns are sometimes suffixed with feminine markers, and feminine nouns are sometimes unmarked just like the masculine nouns. The analysis of the data shows that assigning gender to unmarked nouns is very problematic for adult L2 learners unless the noun has a natural gender referent. 48% of the noun gender assignment errors are of this type. The absence of morphological and semantic gender cues renders the noun ambiguous and confusing for learners. In such cases, learners tend to over generalize the feminine gender to both masculine and feminine nouns. The fact that many grammatical structures are involved in the gender agreement process in Arabic is also a major cause of the complexity of the Arabic gender system. As mentioned previously, there are six gender agreement structures: subject-verb, subject-noun, noun-adjective, noun-demonstrative pronoun, noun-pronoun, and noun-relative pronoun. The learners not only need to recognize these structures, but they also have to choose the correct gender agreement form in each structure. On the other hand, the learning strategies that adult L2 learners employ in acquiring the Arabic grammatical system could also be contributing to the complications that these learners experience with the grammatical gender system. The analysis of the data show that the number of errors in assigning gender to nouns with feminine suffix is high. 30% of the errors found in gender assignment are of this type. This is an indication that the learners fail to activate the morphological gender cue in the noun. The data analysis also demonstrates that nouns with natural gender, marked or unmarked, do not pose any difficulty to L2 learners in gender assignment. Errors in gender assignment involve only formal gender nouns, i.e. nouns with inanimate referent, whether marked or unmarked.

The fact that L2 learners of Arabic do not use the morphological gender cue but they use the semantic gender cue demonstrates a semantic approach to gender assignment. It suggests that the strategy that guides the L2 learners’ choice of gender is based on the meaning of the noun and not its form. This learning strategy that is common among L2 learners may account for the difficulties these learners face with grammatical gender. Some grammatical gender studies in L1 acquisition found that L1 learners use an opposite strategy that relies on phonological and morphological cues for gender assignment at initial stages rather than semantic cues. These learners end up acquiring the system perfectly (Andersen, 1984; Cain et al., 1987; Finneman, 1992). On the other hand, the data analysis demonstrates two different patterns of gender assignment errors. Feminine nouns that are marked by feminine suffix are assigned masculine gender while masculine nouns with no gender marker are assigned feminine gender. The learners over generalize the masculine gender in the former and the feminine gender in the later. Treating the two types of nouns, i.e. the marked and the unmarked, differently suggests that the learners are aware of the marker’s presence. However, although they do realize the presence of the marker, they do not seem to be able to activate it as the analysis suggested above. This indicates that their knowledge of the gender marker’s function is still not specified. The learners’ awareness of the gender marker, i.e. the morphological cue, did not develop until later stages, and it still did not reach the stage of complete knowledge. For those of them who have been learning the language for more than ten years, this seems to suggests fossilization in an incomplete stage of acquisition.

According to Pauwels languages with a "grammatical gender" system categorize nouns into gender class the basis of morphological or phonological features.Grammatical gender may cause translators some difficulties when they translate from source languages in which gender is differently grammaticalized compared with the target language like:

أ اَ ؽانة فٙ قغى انرشج حً I am a (male) student in translation Dept.

أ اَ ؽانثح فٙ قغى انرشج حً I am a (female) student in translation Dept.

If we trace this gender problem we shall find that Arab students consider that every "I" in a sentence represents أ اَ and the other elements in the sentence like verbs, adjectives and complements as formally unmarked for masculine. Students do not relate their translations with context which may cause shifts in them.

According to A.Z Guiora (1983) in English, biological gender is of some importance only in the selection of the personal pronouns "he", "she "and "it"; it figures nowhere else in the morphology. The Arabic language on the other hand pays more attention to sex since it determines the selection of grammatical forms. This point is very important in the study of gender since the students of translation should pay attention to the morphological differences between the two languages as to other linguistic aspects. English has a pronominal gender system based on semantic criteria that are reflected only in personal possessive and reflexive third-person pronouns. The use of he, she and it is determined by simple principles: "male humans are masculine (he), female humans are feminine (she) and anything else is neuter (it)". In Arabic, on the other hand, there are two genders: masculine and feminine. The first is used for male creatures and formally unmarked nouns referring to inanimate things; the latter is used for female creatures and for formally marked nouns referring to inanimate things. More importantly, suffixing it with one of the following can feminize a masculine form: The linked taa' English Arabic a male engineer ي ذُٓط a female engineer ي ذُٓعح

Research in the area of L2 acquisition attests that grammatical gender is one of the most challenging structures for L2 acquirers even at advance levels. The present study explores this problematic issue of grammatical gender in Arabic L2 acquisition, an area that did not receive enough attention in Arabic L2studies. Its goal is to examine grammatical gender errors in the written production of advanced, adult L2 learners of Arabic. These learners experience difficulties with both gender assignment and gender agreement. Although most of the text producers have been learning Arabic for an average of seven years, they are still struggling with this complex system. It seems that the grammatical gender system that these learners have developed did not progress beyond the developmental stage of overgeneralization. Some of them seem to have fossilized in this incomplete stage of acquisition. The complexity of the Arabic grammatical system as well as the learning strategies that L2 learners use in acquiring this system are possible causes of the difficulties facing L2 learners with the grammatical gender in Arabic. Further research in this problematic area of Arabic L2 acquisition is needed to explore the factors creating this difficulty and finding ways to reduce its effect.English has three genders, masculine, feminine and neuter while Arabic has two genders, masculine and feminine. Very few nouns are marked for gender in English; thus gender is more relevant to pronouns. Verbs and Adjectives have no gender or are not involved in gender agreement. Most Arabic nouns are marked for gender, which is also relevant to pronouns, verbs and adjectives. Any change in the gender-specific sentence results in a formal change in the gender- problematic sentence signaling a change in the gender of the speaker. A gender-free sentence is unhelpful in securing an unambiguous rendering of the gender-problematic sentence. This implies that extra linguistic clues are as important as the linguistic ones in disambiguating the gender of the first person singular. Non-linguistic clues need separate and detailed investigation for consideration of time and space. English and Arabic are languages which have gender agreement. In this article, gender is defined generally as gender gap, gender in politic and also gender in language. Gender in language is called as grammatical gender.The grammatical gender of English and Arabic is the focus of discussion. The descriptions of gender agreement in this article are explored in order to get more understanding about the gender in English and Arabic. Further, by comparing English and Arabic descriptions, the similarities and differences are found. The analysis belongs to descriptive method. It begins with describing the concept of both languages in term of gender and identifying the similarities and differences between them. After comparing both English and Arabic, it is found that both languages have similarities. The first similarity is using different words and adding suffixes at the end of the nouns. The second similarity is the third singular pronouns which differentiate male from female. Besides the similarities, there are differences between them. The differences are in the verb and adjective agreement. English has not verb and adjective agreement, while Arabic has them.

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Список литературы

  1. ALHAWARY, M. (2003). Processability theory: counter-evidence from Arabic second language acquisition data. Al-Arabiya, 36, 107-166.
  2. ALHAWARY, M. (2005). L2 acquisition of Arabic morphosyntactic features: Temporary or permanent impairment? In Alhawary, M. & Benmamoun, E. (Eds.), Perspectives on Arabic linguistics (p. 273-312).Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  3. ALHAWARY, M. (2009). Arabic second language acquisition of morphosyntax. Yale University Press.
  4. Cain, J., Weber-Olsen, M., & Smith, R. (1987). Acquisition strategies in a first and second language: Are they the same? Journal of Child Language, 14(2), 333-352. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900012964
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Сафарова, З.З. Проблемный вопрос грамматического рода арабского языка как иностранный язык и грамматические отличия по сравнению с английским / З.З. Сафарова. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2023. — № 135. — С. 51-53. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/19619 (дата обращения: 04.02.2023).