Концепция Л.С. Выготского о развивающем обучении и ее роль в преподавании английского языка для студентов средне специального образования


филологические науки

В статье рассматривается концепция Л.С. Выготского о развивающем обучении и ее роль в обучении английскому языку учащихся средних школ. В статье особое внимание уделяется проблеме житейских и научных концепций. Автор делает вывод о проектной методологии и приводит примеры традиционных и инновационных методов обучения.

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The problem of developmental education is essential because it is associated with the provision of quality education.

Playing a decisive role in obtaining full knowledge, developing training is important in progressing the creative independence of students, in the formation of strong beliefs, and moral habits.

The concept of developing training was formulated by Vygotsky L. S. based on the works of outstanding scientists Zankov L. V., Rubinstein S., Leontiev A., and many others, the analysis of the fundamental mental function, like thinking, its connection with speech. Based on the teachings of famous psychologists, Vygotsky L. S. concluded that “speech is a psychological tool that mediates thinking at its early stage, in the process of practical activity” [1]. The scientist expressed this idea in the paraphrased expression of "Faust," Goethe "In the beginning was the deed", instead of the Bible, "In the beginning was the word." So, for Vygotsky, in the beginning was the deed (practical activity), which is mediated by the word.

Ontogeny thinking study was the initial beginning of the theory associated with developing training, according to Vygotsky L.S.: "Thinking is a higher cognitive processes. It is a generation of new knowledge, the active form of creative reflection and transformation of human activity" [2]. In elaborating the theory of developing training, the scientist attached great importance to the emotional-motivational sphere, believing that the activity determines “mental processes, determines consciousness”: “A thought,” wrote Vygotsky, “is not the last instance.... The thought itself is not born from another thought, but from motives — not from another thought, but from the motivating sphere of our consciousness”[3].

In the context of Vygotsky’s general theoretical research, his concept of developing training acquires methodological significance, in the justification of which he approached from a position, the theory of thinking, the connection with speech, as well as from the point of view of two types of concepts — worldly and scientific. Moreover, he considered the worldly concept to be the highest step, to which “the generalization, going from a visual situation, abstraction according to a well-known visual sign, can rise. These concepts — are general ideas coming from the concrete to the abstract. This is a generalization of things. Scientific concepts, on the other hand, are generalizations of thought, the path to the formation of a scientific concept from abstract to concrete” [3].

Vygotsky connected the problem of worldly and scientific concepts with the problem of training and development, which served as a prerequisite for revealing the essence of developing training.

During the study of worldly and scientific concepts, Vygotsky became convinced that the development of scientific concepts is faster than spontaneous (worldly). The degree of mastery of worldly concepts shows the level of actual development of students, and the degree of mastery of scientific concepts — the zone of proximal development.

As a result, the scientist concluded widely known in psychology, pedagogy, and methodology: « Learning is only good when it is ahead of development ». The researchers rightly point out that such a view was revolutionary, because sway opinion, according to which the training has to go "behind the development and consolidate their achievements. It seemed impossible that the training run ahead of child development” [5].

Thus, according to Vygotsky, “training can have long-term development and not just the immediate consequences, training can go not only after development, and not only keep up with it, but it can go ahead of development” [3].

This position determines the success of innovative approaches and ideas relating to the methodology of foreign language teachers.

In the nature of developing training, the system of modern methods of innovative methods, design methods, integrative and others are responsible. At the same time, an interactive method is gaining considerable importance.

As demonstrated by pedagogical practice — the skillful implementation of the principle of developing training promotes to a more in-depth comprehension of the studied grammatical topics, and the formation of students development creative independence.

It is known that, despite the effectiveness of the project methodology, it has not yet taken a firm place in the practice of teaching English, and this is largely due to the fact that teachers insufficiently assess the possibilities of an advanced method of learning, and are often limited to methods such as drawing up a cluster, brainstorm, KWL, etc.

At the same time, the experience of conducting a system of lessons during the practice period testifies to the legitimacy of Vygotsky’s teachings that “training should run ahead of child development”.

So the project method can be successfully used in English lesson. For example, when studying a verb, it is advisable to give students the task of compiling the project “Friend of My Childhood”, while studying the subject of the adjective, compiling the project “My Favorite Flower”, and studying the pronoun, creating the project “City Tour”.

It should be noted that the developing training principle is not limited to using only modern methods. It is necessary to skillfully combine the traditional methodology (inductive, deductive teaching methods; composing a sentence; adding words or phrases; translating from English to Russian, etc.), with innovative teaching methods (project presentations, creating interactive situations; game technology and much more). All this taken together will help to teach students "running ahead of their development", developing them spiritually and morally.

Список литературы

  1. Vygotsky L.S. Collected Works in 6 volumes, volume I, 31. — Moscow, 1982.
  2. Dunker K. Approaches to the Study of Productive Thinking “A Reader in General Psychology. The psychology of thinking”. — Moscow, 1981. — p.37.
  3. Vygotsky L.S. "Thinking and Speech." — Moscow, 1956
  4. Leontyev A.N., “The Lonely Way of L.S. Vygotsky”. — Moscow, 1982.