Роль мигрантов в экономике Российской Федерации


Экономические науки

Поток трудовой миграции из-за рубежа в Российскую Федерацию наблюдался в 70-х годах прошлого века. Данный этап характеризуется не экспортом рабочей силы Российской Федерации, а с началом въезда мигрантов на территорию страны.

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Naturally, the economy of the Russian federation in the way of positive and negative effects of the migration process too significantly. Russia has enough potential for its own migrant labor force migration with large areas of a huge country. If we consider the positive characteristics of migration in recent years as a result of low birth and death in Russia a lot of the attraction of the country that needed to in fact migration also remained. On the second hand, the increase of crime in the country have the negative consequences of migration, and other illegal activities caused an increase contraband.

To enter the pool of labor migration to Russia from abroad in the 70s of the last century began to appear. The labor force of the Russian federation may not work in this stage but beginning to come into the country is characterized with migrants'. The 90's of the twentieth century-the beginning of the year increase significantly the migration from the natural growth of the population in the medium level than it started. Depopulation of the active population for the country as a result of the economic migrant in order to increase them also begins to feel the need to. The 90 years of the last century, the lack of technology and their place in the labor force also differs with a need to be covered with. In this sense, the quality of life on the level of Russian was being left behind from many countries of the world. Exactly for the same reasons, Russia was forced to raise its economic potential due to the increase of migrant.

Of course, the process of labor migration aimed at development of state of the state of the economy, many of tasks, to save the image to settle and foremost initial shows the effects of high economic growth.

However, certain factors can be the reason before the migration to the economic recession. Today the bulk of migrant in the Russian federation and China, the countries of the commonwealth of independent states has been on contribution.

Therefore, a large part of the migrant do not have enough skills. Respectively, these are reputable people and not paid less than the growth of the economy can have a big impact for non-work, they will prefer to be busy with.

Also, factor in the chances of slowing down the economic development of migrant innovation improvements to the flow of capital abroad will occur. Migrasion process in modern Russia, in the region of negative factors in the number of developing countries who pay the large amount of migrant no legal can be noted. Often these criminal damage seeing the migrant of the national budget of the Russian federation and the hidden economy will cause economic activity to occur. This in turn means that policy should change migration the country.

Worry the first time since the demographic situation in Russia has been put to many scholars. Ten countries have reduced the growing number of the population in the Russian Federation un scientists have confirmed that there are. This data is based on the net of the chamber increased degree of the population — the average number of girls, or girls in the number of those who were born in this country, considering the level of reproductive and death rate stay their lives in the process.

The possibility of the birth of a daughter in Russia, as data for generation 30 is shown. If it is equal to the average in the country age birth to 26.81, in the generation of the birth of a daughter is likely to arise in the year 804. The population of this research is the growing loss of Macao, Hong Kong, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Malta, Slovakia, Singapore, Romania, Hungary, Macedonia, Russian federation with countries like to put in a row of bring .

Regions of inter-migration is directly connected with the income differentiation different areas. The average salary 17135 rubles (the autonomous republic Dagestan) 70191 pm (Polish autonomy), consists of. Thus, without migration income related to Central (231061), North-West (99,459) and the south (62436) growing in the federal district. The north Caucasus (-38,135), far east (-33,042), Siberian (-15,178) and Volga (-14,559) while the federal district is reduced.

The age of 14 years, the migration of the Russian federation, foreign migrant-term and those who have access to more information have been set up. This is the language of science “the fluidity of the minds”. Thus, from the Russian federation, the United States, Germany and Canada exactly of mind “leakage” are observed. Thus, as the main reason favorable climate, the chance of the implementation of the freedom of business activity at a high level and extremely innovative ideas that marks. “The leakage of the mind” for scientific and economic growth of the Russian federation, which contributes to reducing the level of can lead to serious consequences. For example, a few years ago, the us patent and receive license revenue from the sale of 2.3 times increased in 30% the share of the presence of Russian specialists mentioned. Every year the internal leakage of the mind” (to live and work for a foreign company expert in the Russian federation) of the Russian federation as a result of the 600-700 million $ lost. Also, using the help of a mediator in foreign trade as a result of 3-4 billion $ loss.

In the Russian federation-bodied population 0,81 %is equal to the labor disabled 72% of men consists. Bodied aged 20 and 34 at the expense of the amount of the migrant population continues to grow. The population of the total population in this age 0,75% for accounts. Of the population in the Russian federation, from 2013 on “aging” process began to occur again. Migration growth of the population-bodied from the growth of the population than 15%. Come to the main reason for the occurrence of this situation in the 90's “the demographic void” is: to decrease the complexity of the marriage record of birth is reduced as a result (in thousands of 1998 showed the lowest birth -849). 1998-2011 year of marriage structure increased 55 percent. Than to come to 2011 2012 7,8 % less marriage was recorded. In 2013, the toe is only 1% increased. In the years 2013-2015 according to the data of the ministry of labor and social protection-bodied population number of 2 million close to reduced.

The cases noted above have led to an increase in the demand of the Russian federation, foreign migrant. According to the Russian federal border service Russian federation the distribution of the migrant to visit the following appearance: private (64 %), services (19 %), tourism (9 %), the service provider staff (7 %), permanent residence (1%) and transit (0,004%). Those who came from the CIS countries in the structure of migrant 93%.

If you have the main part of this migrant information medium, the possibility that they might have a negative impact on the development of the economy is high. High-technology producer countries to the world market in the last decade lived their direction focused. In turn stimulates increase the competitiveness of goods in the world market of the Russian federation. However, out of the population with higher education and secondary education from the Russian federation, going to be the advent of rapid development of the country the migrant does not allow for access, but is considered one of the factors which cause the slow development of the economy.

The state statistics committee of the Russian federation of foreign economic migrant will not show the exact number of operating network. In the opinion of some researchers, these figures especially systems analysis, construction, trade and service information in commercial activities migration it is likely to make a big difference.

Due to the preferential migration regime with the countries of the cis and the uncertainty of the work place at a low cost salary despite the millions of migrant from the Russian federation to the central asian countries has resulted in coming out of the control of access. However, Azerbaijan as well as by the local population. The occurrence of ethnic conflict and mass killing to be conducted Sherbakov antimigrasion policy causes. Economic policy and implementation to increase sanksiya, immigrasiya this situation, the rules for migrant bring this kind of change. As a result, different measures of punishment used in the Russian federation for migrant follows begin.

First of all, the registration procedure for registration for any violation of or false — in the amount of 100-500 thousand rubles fine or 3 years in the size of the income.

Secondly, the retail trade from year 2014 the share of foreign migrant has been identified. According to him, the total number of migrant employees in the retail trade of alcoholic beverages, including beer from 15%, increased not been established. When selling pharmaceutical products in the market with the migrant trade and other trade goods in the retail trade will be prohibited..

Third, starting from the year 2014 in the Russian federation, foreign citizens and stateless persons temporary residence permits are provided on the right of reduced to the amount of started. This in turn has lead to the increase of migrant nolegal.

State policy has had a direct impact on the economy of the country migration. For example, the adoption of the work place for the personnel of Russian migrant excess can cause the decrease and unemployment to occur. The GDP of how many countries is growing so much growing capital of labor by others. Also, increased demand in the labor market, in turn, will give impulses for growth in real gross domestic product contribute to the growth of the size of that investment.

Список литературы

  1. Маложиленко Ю.Ю. Миграция в России и ее влияние на экономику страны // Научное сообщество студентов XXI столетия. ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ: сб. ст. по мат. XXVI Междунар. студ. науч.-практ. конф. № 11(26).
  2. Статья. Особенности международной миграции: иностранная рабочая сила в экономике России http://studbooks.net/