Различия между американским и английским слeнгом


филологические науки

В данной статье рассматривается то, как Язык меняется при переходе от одной социальной группы к другой и даже в разных ситуациях, в которых может оказаться любой человек. Происходит искажение английского языка, когда различные социальные группы адаптируют английский к своей фонетике. Неверное произношение может вызвать сленг, и иногда это так.

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Everyone knows that even the English and American speak one language; they sometimes have some difficulties in understanding each other. In order not to get into trouble being in England or in America let me analyze several distinctions in slang using in these countries.

  • Football.

In England — “football” will stay the same — “football”, however in America — “football” — it’s “soccer”. The word “football” means “American football”.

  • Pants.

In America “pants” — it’s what English people call “trousers”, that is “брюки”, “штаны”. English people use the word “pants” for underwear and means trunks.

  • Chips.

The English by the word “chips” sigh not the chips, but French potatoes. Chips for American it’s “crisps”.

  • Lift.

In England the mechanical device, uses for lifting and lowering people on the floor calls “lift”, but in America “elevator”. If you using auto stop by traveling down America, and want somebody to give you a lift, you should use the word “lift”. Ex. “Could you give me a lift, man?”.

  • Hotels.

In Great Britain floor numeration at hotels or establishments starts from the “ground floor” — нулевого. Consequently, the first floor in English hotels is situated on the second floor of American, French or other hotels of the world.

  • Cookies.

Americans eat them with milk no more than 2 pieces during the day, because they promote healthy way of living. By American cookies-are any types of crisp sweets, crackers. English people call them “biscuits”. However, by the word “biscuits” American call that English call “scone” — сдобные булочки. So, having looked though these examples, I can mention that slang is still polysemantic. Slang refers to the vocabulary of limited use. It has non-official character and emotional tinge. The circle of users of slang is narrower than that of colloquialisms. It is mainly used by the young and uneducated. Yet, slang's colorful and humorous quality makes it catching, so that a considerable part of slang may become accepted by nearly all the groups of speakers. Slang is a controversial topic nowadays, even there have been a lot of researches on slang before the debate on its definitions, classification and linguistic relevance is still heated.

Language varies in passing from one social group to another and even in the different situations in which any person may find himself. There takes place distortion of English when various social groups adapt English to their own phonetics. Mispronunciation may give rise to slang and it sometimes does.

The chief consonantal variation is the change of “th” to “f” or “v” as in “fing” for “thing” or “farver” for “father”. This and the vowel-sound change from “ou” and “ow” to “ah” as in “abaht” for “about”, “nah” for “now” are illustrated in the play “Pygmalion” by B. Shaw. These phonetic peculiarities of slang can sometimes be shown in another language in several ways: it is sometimes possible to distort the translated word as it is often distorted by native speakers: “violet” — “фиалка”, “фиалка”, “цветочек”. Very often dialect words seem proper: “violet” — “цветик”. Slang accent can also be shown by a slang word: “garn” — “клёво”, “прикольно”, “улёт”.

As we know, there are a great number of various slang words in the English language. According to sociological research we can notice how easily almost every day new slang words or expressions are born and die or even migrate from slang to the standard language or vice versa. We see that people widely use slang words in their every-day life conversations, while reading some newspapers or magazines they come across with modern slang words and expressions. But unfortunately, not all of the existing slang words and expressions are used. Our dictionaries try to keep every slang word that has ever appeared. In linguistic there is such statement which refer to dictionaries. It sounds like: “Dictionaries are popularly thought to have strong influence. They are thought to give validity and authority to their entries, and therefore to have social and moral impact”.

The first slang dictionary was published in 1785 and was called “A Classical Dictionary of the vulgar tongue”. Starting from that time the scholars have been collecting and recording slang in order to save for our descendants the differing styles of non-standard language. It should be kept in mind that dictionaries contain almost all the slang words and expressions that have ever appeared. The diffusion of lexical innovation, including slang and other popular speech, follows the same principles that govern the diffusion of any cultural innovation: it spreads in direct proportion to population density, intensity of communication, and perceived usefulness. The mass media augments and amplifies this process and can bring almost instantaneous diffusion of new expressions, introducing them at once into many thousands of local social circles, from which they spread further by word of mouth. In modern societies laced together by the mass media, folk lexical culture blends with mass lexical culture.

So, what conclusion can be drawn from all this? As I mention previously slang today is the way of expressing one’s thoughts, ideas, fillings and desires in a non-standard way. It is often believed that slang is used by all kinds groups of people sharing the same ideas interests and situations. In accordance with the chapter there are so many reasons of using slang during the talk. From the one hand there is the firm believe that it is the best and easiest way of hiding your thoughts from these you don’t know in order to be secret. This tactics is usually nature for kids because it is the solution which can help them to talk in ways their parents won't understand, so they can get away with more. However on the other hand there is firm believe some people especially teenagers usually like to use slang in order to impress the others or just to seem cool, novel and not to be understood by the others. Sometimes due to the usage of slang words we can determine the social status of the speaker. The majority uses slang words just to enrich the language, to make their speech more colorful.

Today we can observe that almost everywhere slang words and expressions occur fairly often. If we take as an example mass media, there we may also meet slang — movies, songs, TV shows the best sign of slang usage. However it would be unfair not to mention the fact that besides mass-media we also have may notice wide usage of slang in different spheres of application like internet, money, student, military slang. All these just little information concerning with the slang popularity.

Personally, I think that slang it is irreplaceable tendency of 21-century. Thanks to the slang our speech enriches with fresh and modern words and expressions. Language as we know every time demands singularity and creativity. It leads us to believe that exactly slang is the way if it performing.

Список литературы

  1. Арутюнова, Н.Д. Лингвистические проблемы референции [Текст] / Н.Д. Арутюнова // Новое в зарубежной лингвистике. − М.: Радуга, 1982. − С.5-40.
  2. Ахманова, О.С. Словарь лингвистических терминов [Текст] / О.С. Ахманова. - 5-е изд. - М.: Книжный дом "Либроком", 2010. - 576 с.